A HISTORY OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY – Volume 1st

(Serialised Presentation – 3rd)

By Late Dr. Surendranath Dasgupta

1922 AD

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY

CHAPTER II

THE VEDAS, BRĀHMAṆAS AND THEIR PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. The Vedas and their antiquity
  2. The place of the Vedas in the Hindu mind
  3. Classification of the Vedic literature
  4. The Saṁhitās
  5. The Brāhmaṇas
  6. The Āraṇyakas
  7. The Ṛg-Veda, its civilization
  8. The Vedic gods
  9. Polytheism, Henotheism, and Monotheism
  10. Growth of a Monotheistic tendency; Prajāpati, Viśvakarmā
  11. Brahma
  12. Sacrifice; the First Rudiments of the Law of Karma
  13. Cosmogony – Mythological and Philosophical
  14. Eschatology; the Doctrine of Ātman
  15. Conclusion

 

CHAPTER III

THE EARLIER UPANIṢADS (700 B.C. – 600 B.C. – date reflecting the findings of the oldest available manuscripts & not of the actual divine origination of the Upaniṣads)

 

  1. The Place of the Upaniṣads in Vedic literature
  2. The names of the Upaniṣads; Non-Brāhmaṇic influence
  3. Brāhmaṇas and the Early Upaniṣads
  4. The meaning of the word Upaniṣad
  5. The composition and growth of diverse Upaniṣads
  6. Revival of Upaniṣad studies in modern times
  7. The Upaniṣads and their interpretations
  8. The quest after Brahman: the struggle and the failures
  9. Unknowability of Brahman and the Negative Method
  10. The Ātman doctrine
  11. Place of Brahman in the Upaniṣads
  12. The World
  13. The World-Soul
  14. The Theory of Causation
  15. Doctrine of Transmigration
  16. Emancipation

 

 

CHAPTER IV

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SYSTEMS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. In what sense is a History of Indian Philosophy possible?
  2. Growth of the Philosophic Literature
  3. The Indian systems of Philosophy
  4. Some fundamental points of agreement
  • The Karma Theory
  • The Doctrine of Mukti
  • The Doctrine of Soul
  1. The Pessimistic Attitude towards the World and the Optimistic Faith in the End
  2. Unity in Indian Sādhana (philosophical, religious and ethical endeavours)

 

 

CHAPTER IV

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. The State of Philosophy in India before Buddha
  2. Buddha: his life
  3. Early Buddhist literature
  4. The Doctrine of Causal Connection of early Buddhism
  5. The Khandhas
  6. Avijjā and Āsava
  7. Śīla and Samādhi
  8. Kamma
  9. Upaniṣads and Buddhism
  10. The Schools of Theravāda Buddhism
  11. Mahāyānism
  12. The Tathatā Philosophy of Aśvaghoṣa (80 A.D.)
  13. The Mādhyamika or the Śūnyavāda school – Nihilism
  14. Uncompromising Idealism or the School of Vijñanavāda Buddhism
  15. Sautrāntika theory of Perception
  16. Sautrāntika theory of Inference
  17. The Doctrine of Momentariness
  18. The Doctrine of Momentariness and the Doctrine of Causal Efficiency (Arthakriyākāritva)
  19. Some Ontological Problems on which the Different Indian Systems diverged
  20. Brief Survey of the Evolution of Buddhist Thought

 

 

CHAPTER VI

THE JAINA PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. The Origin of Jainism
  2. Two Sects of Jainism
  3. The Canonical and other Literature of the Jains
  4. Some General Characteristics of the Jains
  5. Life of Mahāvīra
  6. The Fundamental Ideas of the Jaina Ontology
  7. The Doctrine of Relative Pluralism (Anekāntavāda)
  8. The Doctrine of Nayas
  9. The Doctrine of Syādvāda
  10. Knowledge, its value for us
  11. Theory of Perception
  12. Non-Perceptual Knowledge
  13. Knowledge as Revelation
  14. The Jīvas
  15. Karma Theory
  16. Karma, Āsrava and Nirjarā
  17. Pudgala
  18. Dharma, Adharma, Ākāśa
  19. Kāla and Samaya
  20. Jaina Cosmography
  21. Jaina Yoga
  22. Jaina Atheism
  23. Mokṣa (emancipation)

 

 

CHAPTER VII

THE KAPILA AND THE PĀTAÑJALA SĀÑKHYA (YOGA)

 

  1. A Review
  2. The Germs of Sāṅkhya in the Upaniṣads
  3. Sāṅkhya and Yoga Literature
  4. An Early School of Sāṅkhya
  5. Sāṅkhya-kārikā, Sāṅkhya-sūtra, Vācaspati Miśra and Vijñāna Bhikṣu
  6. Yoga and Patañjali
  7. The Sāṅkhya and the Yoga doctrine of Soul or Puruṣa
  8. Thought and Matter
  9. Feelings, the Ultimate Substances
  10. The Guṇas
  11. Prakṛti and its evolution
  12. Pralaya and the disturbance of the Prakṛti Equilibrium
  13. Mahat and Ahaṅkāra
  14. The Tanmātrās and the Paramāṇus
  15. Principle of Causation and Conservation of Energy
  16. Change as the formation of new collocations
  17. Causation as Satkāryavāda (the theory that the effect, potentially, exists before it is generated by the movement of the cause)
  18. Sāṅkhya Atheism and Yoga Theism
  19. Buddhi and Puruṣa
  20. The Cognitive Process and some characteristics of Citta
  21. Sorrow and its Dissolution
  22. Citta
  23. Yoga Purificatory Practices (Parikarma)
  24. The Yoga Meditation

 

 

CHAPTER VIII

THE NYĀYA-VAIŚEṢIKA PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. Criticism of Buddhism and Sāṅkhya from the Nyāya standpoint
  2. Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika Sūtras
  3. Does Vaiśeṣika represent an old school of Mīmāṁsā?
  4. Philosophy in the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras
  5. Philosophy in the Nyāya-sūtras
  6. Philosophy of Nyāya-sūtras and Viśeṣika-sūtras
  7. The Vaiśeṣika and Nyāya Literature
  8. The main doctrine of the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy
  9. The Six Padārthas: Dravya, Guṇa, Karma, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya
  10. The Theory of Causation
  11. Dissolution (Pralaya) and Creation (Sṛṣṭi)
  12. Proof of the Existence of Īśvara
  13. The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Physics
  14. The Origin of Knowledge (Pramāṇa)
  15. The four Pramāṇas of Nyāya
  16. Perception (Pratyakṣa)
  17. Inference (Anumāna)
  18. Upamāna and Śabda
  19. Negation in Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika
  20. The necessity of the Acquirement of debating devices for the seeker of Salvation
  21. The Doctrine of Soul
  22. Īśvara and Salvation

 

 

CHAPTER IX

MĪMĀṀSĀ PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. A Comparative Review
  2. The Mīmāṁsā Literature
  3. The Parataḥ-prāmāṇya doctrine of Nyāya and the Svataḥ-prāmāṇya doctrine of Mīmāṁsā
  4. The place of Sense-organs in Perception
  5. Indeterminate and Determinate Perception
  6. Some Ontological Problems connected with the Doctrine of Perception
  7. The Nature of Knowledge
  8. The Psychology of Illusion
  9. Inference
  10. Upamāna, Arthāpatti
  11. Śabda-pramāṇa
  12. The Pramāṇa of Non-perception (anupalabdhi)
  13. Self, Salvation and God
  14. Mīmāṁsā as Philosophy and Mīmāṁsā as Ritualism

 

 

CHAPTER X

THE ŚAṄKARA SCHOOL OF VEDĀNTA

 

  1. Comprehension of the Philosophical Issues more essential than the Dialectic of Controversy
  2. The philosophical situation: a Review
  3. Vedānta Literature
  4. Vedānta in Gauḍapāda
  5. Vedānta and Śaṅkara (788-820 AD – according to the non-traditionalist modern opinion)
  6. The main idea of the Vedānta philosophy
  7. In what sense is the world-appearance false?
  8. The nature of the world-appearance, phenomena
  9. The Definition of Ajñāna (nescience)
  10. Ajñāna established by Perception and Inference
  11. Locus and Object of Ajñāna, Ahaṅkāra and Antaḥkaraṇa
  12. Anirvācyavāda and the Vedānta dialectic
  13. The Theory of Causation
  14. Vedānta theory of Perception and Inference
  15. Ātman, Jīva, Īśvara, Ekajīvavāda and Dṛṣṭisṛṣṭivāda
  16. Vedānta theory of Illusion
  17. Vedānta Ethics and Vedānta Emancipation
  18. Vedānta & Other Indian systems

 

INDEX

 

Thus concludes the contents’ description of the First Volume

 

(Continued in next serialized parts)

 

 

Reproduced by the Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādhīśvara Gurupādācārya Svāmī of BRVF

 

(Disclaimer – Not all thoughts presented by the author Dr. Surendranath Dasgupta in this book may, necessarily, be considered part of the spiritual/religious ideology of BRVF and its Master)

 

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