Bala-gopala

 

भगवदितिपदस्य परिभाषा (गुरुण्डाऽवृत्ति:) / Definition of ‘Bhagavān’ / ‘भगवान्’ शब्द की परिभाषा (अंग्रेजी आवृत्ति)

 

 

 

योनि, काम, वीर्य, इच्छा, माहात्म्य, यत्न, मोक्ष, रवि/अर्क (yoni, kāma, vīrya, icchā, māhātmya, yatna, mokṣa, ravi/arka) —

 

1) ‘yoni’ (female genital organ – indicating feminine divine energy; it can, alternatively, mean cause or कारण/हेतु too as in “śāstra-yonitvāt” – Brahma-sūtram 1.1.3) – Bhagavān is, always, inclusive of His ādyā śakti and this is substantiated in the śruti statements – “sa ekākī na ramate sa dvitīyam aicchat” + (Ṛk-pariśiṣṭa-vacanam) – “rādhayā mādhavo devo mādhavenaiva tu rādhikā vibhrājante janeṣu”.

 

2) ‘kāma’ (divine love and divine amorously aesthetic dalliances) – Kṛṣna-yāmala-mahātantram (āgama) and the Atharvedīya Gopāla-tāpani-upaniṣad (śruti) clarify how Kṛṣna is a divine Cupid (alaukika-kāma) and that the usage of the kāma-bīja ‘klīṁ’ can be, alternatively, done for Nandanandana – instead of ‘oṁ’ or praṇava. Being divine Kāma personified, Śrī Kṛṣṇa defeats the ordinary mundane kāma (laukika kāma) as evident in the Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 10.32.2 verse – “sākṣān manmatha-manmathaḥ”.

 

3) ‘vīrya’ (power) – Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 1.3.38 explains how Rathāṅga-pāṇi Śrī Kṛṣṇa is invincibly powerful – “….duranta-vīryasya rathāṅga-pāṇeḥ…”.

 

4) ‘icchā’ (desire) — “eko ‘yaṁ bahusyāṁ prajāyeyam iti” – Upaniṣadic statement coupled with the Brahma-sūtra aphorism – “loka-vat tu līlā kaivalyam” + Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 19.29.1’s assertion – “….vīkṣya rantuṁ manaś cakre…” — reveals the Bhagavān is replete with līlā/icchā (divine spontaneous desire).

 

5) ‘māhātmya’ (glories) – Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 12.13.1 – “yasyāntaṁ na viduḥ surāsura-gaṇā devāya tasmai namaḥ” – reveals the unfathomable nature of bhagavan-mahimā.

 

6) ‘yatna’ (endeavour) – Bhagavad-gītā verse – “paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām” – denotes the endeavour of Bhagavān.

 

7) ‘mokṣa’ (liberation) – Śrīmad-bhāgavatam3.25.25 – “…apavarga-vartmani…” and the Padma-purāṇa statement – “mukti-pradātā sarveṣāṁ viṣṇur eva na saṁśayaḥ”.

 

8) ‘arka/ravi’ (Sun) — Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 12.11.28 – “…vyūhaṁ sūryātmano hareḥ” substantiates the sūryātmatva of Hari.

 

 

Likewise, the various meanings (even those besides ‘nitya-yoga’ or eternal association) of the ‘matup’ pratyaya (suffix) as given in the Patañjali-mahābhāṣya 5.2.94 (of Pāṇini Vyākaraṇam – Āṣṭādhāyī)  are all applicable in Bhagavān.

 

1) ‘bhūmi’ (abundance or substratum) – Bhagavān is having all the aforesaid 14 divine (aprākṛta/alaukika) attributes in full abundance (prācurya) and He is the source and shelter basis (srota-ādhāra) of those excellences.

 

2) ‘nindā’ (criticism) – The chāyā-ābhāsa (reflective semblance) of all the 14 divine attributes constitutes of their mundane counterparts (trigūṇātmaka prākṛta laukika māyika lakṣaṇa). This chāyā-ābhāsa of all divine qualities is not present in Bhagavān and therefore, He is both sa-guṇa (enriched with divine qualities) and nir-guṇa (devoid of all mundane attributes) and this is confirmed in Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 10.14.14 – “..tac-cāpi satyaṁ na tavaiva māyā” + 10.88.5 – “harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ”. Therefore the śrutis do nindanam or criticism of the laukika guṇas in para-brahma by saying in a denying mode – ‘neti neti’.

 

3) ‘praśaṁsā’ (praise/extol) – Due to these alaukika-guṇas, wholly, identical with Bhagavān, Śrī Bhagavān is praised in the śāstras.

 

4) ‘ati-śaya’ (excellence or the last paramount limit) – All these divine guṇas are found in Bhagavān in their utmost limit as indicated by scriptures on numerous occasions.

 

5) ‘sambandhaḥ / astitva’ (conjunction/existence) – All these divine qualities exist in Bhagavān (astitva) and are united (sambandha) with Him as ‘bhagavat-svarūpa-dharma’ or the functioning of the svarūpa of Bhagavān.

 

 

 

— Gurupādācārya Svāmī

 

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