Srila Rupa Kavisvara Gosvamipada

एतद्विषयिणीनां जिज्ञासानां जिज्ञासुभि: प्रस्तुतिकरणं समाधानार्थं स्वागतार्हं खल्वेव । / इस विषय पर केन्द्रित समस्त जिज्ञासाओं के प्रस्तुतिकारण का – समाधानार्थ – भरपूर स्वागत है । / All queries concentrated on this subject for clarification and their resultant presentation is most welcome.

 

श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तसारसङ्ग्रह: (प्रथमांश:) / শ্রীব্রজভক্তিরসসারসংগ্রহ: (প্রথমাংশ:) / श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तसारसङ्ग्रह – भाग १ / Śrī-vraja-bhakti-rasa-siddhānta-sāra-saṅgraha (Essential Collection of the Principles of the Succulent Mellows of Vraja-bhakti) – Pt. 1

 

 

श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तसारसङ्ग्रह: (प्रथमांश:) / śrī-vraja-bhakti-rasa-siddhānta-sāra-saṅgrahaḥ (prathamāṁśaḥ) / শ্রীব্রজভক্তিরসসারসংগ্রহ: (প্রথমাংশ:) / श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससारसङ्ग्रह (प्रथम भाग)

 

 

पारकीयोज्ज्वलरससम्राजानामप्राकृतकवितार्किकसिंहानामप्रतिमरूपानुगचूडामणीनां व्रजरसिकराजसभासभाजनभाजनानां भगवद्भक्तिरसप्रस्थानदार्शनिकधुरन्धराणां चैतन्य(राधा+व्रजेन्द्रसुत)चरणचञ्चरीकाग्रगण्यश्रीमद्रघुनाथभट्टगोस्वामि(रस मञ्जरी सखी)शिष्यपरिवारान्तर्गतानां  गौडदेशीयश्रीलकृष्णदासकविराजगोस्वामिपाद(कस्तूरिका मञ्जरी सखी)प्रशिष्याणां पञ्चनददेशीयश्रीलमुकुन्ददासगोस्वामि(मोदा मञ्जरी सखी)पादाश्रितानाञ्च बङ्गविप्रकुलसमुद्भूतश्रीलरूपकवीश्वरगोस्वामिपादैः वैरागिभि: (रत्न मञ्जरी सखी) विरचित: । / পারকীযোজ্জ্বলরসসম্রাজানামপ্রাকৃতকবিতার্কিকসিংহানামপ্রতিমরুপানুগচূড়ামণীনাং ব্রজরসিকরাজসভাসভাজনভাজনানাং ভগবদ্ভক্তিরসপ্রস্থানদার্শনিকধুরন্ধরাণাং চৈতন্য(রাধা+ব্রজেন্দ্রসুত)চরণচঞ্চরীকাগ্রগণ্যশ্রীমদ্রঘুনাথভট্টগোস্বামি(রস মঞ্জরী সখী)শিষ্যপরিবারান্তর্গতানাং গৌডদেশীযশ্রীলকৃষ্ণদাসকবিরাজগোস্বামিপাদ(কস্তূরিকা মঞ্জরী সখী)প্রশিষ্যাণাং পঞ্চনদদেশীযশ্রীলমুকুন্দদাসগোস্বামি(মোদা মঞ্জরী সখী)পাদাশ্রিতানাঞ্চ বঙ্গবিপ্রকুলসমুদ্ভূতশ্রীলরূপকবীশ্বরগোস্বামিপাদৈ: বৈরাগিভি: (রত্ন মঞ্জরী সখী) বিরচিত: । / Pārakīyojjvala-rasa-samrājānām aprākṛta-kāvi-tārkika-siṁhānām apratima-rūpānuga-cūḍāmaṇīnāṁ vraja-rasika-rājasabhā-sabhājana-bhājanānāṁ bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-prasthāna-dārśanika-dhurandharāṇāṁ caitanya(rādhā+vrajendra-suta)-caraṇa-cañcarīkāgragaṇya-śrīmad-raghunātha-bhaṭṭa-gosvāmi(rasa-mañjarī sakhī)-śiṣya-parivāra-angargatānāṁ gauḍa-deśīya-śrīla-kṛṣṇadāsa-kavirāja-gosvāmipāda(kastūrikā-mañjarī sakhī)-praśiṣyāṇāṁ pañcanada-deśīya-śrīla-mukundadāsa-gosvāmi(modā-mañjarī sakhī)-pādāśritānāñ ca baṅga-vipra-kula-samudbhūta-śrīla-rūpa-kavīśvara-gosvāmi-pādaiḥ vairāgibhiḥ (ratna-mañjarī sakhī) viracitaḥ.

 

 

उपोद्घातः / উপোদ্ঘাত: /  Upodghāta

 

 

वैष्णवशास्त्रेभ्यो विशेषेण तु गौडवैष्णवानां व्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तप्रतिपादकग्रन्थेभ्यः समाकृष्य सङ्गृहीतोऽत्र ग्रन्थकृद्भि: सारः । प्रदर्शितञ्च सप्रमाणं श्रीभगवतो रतिधामलीलादिनां तत्त्वानां सिद्धान्त इत्ययं सारसङ्ग्रहो नूनं श्रीराधागोविन्दपदारविन्दभजनाभीप्सूनां गौडीयवैष्णवतत्त्वपायसबुभुक्षूणां वैष्णवशास्त्रतत्त्वगवेषकाणाञ्च कल्पते भूयसे लाभाय । अस्येह विषयः समासतो दर्श्यते । / বৈষ্ণবশাস্ত্রেভ্যো বিশেষেণ তু গৌডবৈষ্ণবানাং ব্রজভক্তিরসসিদ্ধান্তপ্রতিপাদকেভ্য: সমাকৃষ্য় সংগৃহীতো ঽত্র গ্রন্থকৃদ্ভি: সার: । প্রদর্শিতঞ্চ সপ্রমাণং শ্রীভগবতো রতিধামলীলাদিনাং তত্বানাং সিদ্ধান্ত ইত্যযং সারসংগ্রহো নুনং শ্রীরাধাগোবিন্দপদারবিন্দভজনাভীপ্সুনাং গৌডীযবৈষ্ণবতত্বপাযসবুভূক্ষুণাং বৈষ্ণবশাস্ত্রতত্বগবেষকাণাঞ্চ কল্পতে ভূযসে লাভায । অস্যেহ বিষয: সমাসতো দর্শ্যতে । / vaiṣṇava-śāstrebhyo viśeea tu gaua-vaiṣṇavānāṁ vraja-bhakti-rasa-siddhānta-pratipādaka-granthebhya samākṛṣya saghīto ‘tra grantha-kdbhi sāra. pradarśitañ ca sapramāṇa śrī-bhagavato rati-dhāma-līlādināṁ tattvānāṁ siddhānta ity aya sāra-sagraho nūna śrī-rādhā-govinda-padāravinda-bhajanābhīpsūnāṁ gauḍīya-vaiṣṇava-tattva-pāyasa-bubhukṣūṇāṁ vaiṣṇava-śāstra-tattva-gaveakāṇāñ ca kalpate bhūyase lābhāya. asyeha viaya samāsato darśyate.

 

 

[विषयसङ्क्षेप:/বিষযসংক্ষেপ:/viaya-sakepa]

 

 

शान्तदास्यसख्यवात्सल्यमाधुर्यरूपाणां रतीनां चरम उपयोगः श्रीमद्भगवद्भजन एव । तत्र पूर्वपूर्वाभ्यो रतिभ्य उत्तरोत्तरासामुत्कर्षो तारतम्यमूलक: । एवञ्च मधुरैव रति: सर्वश्रेष्ठेति वैष्णवशास्त्रमतनिष्कर्ष: । अस्यां मधुररतावन्येषां रतिभावानां सत्यप्यन्तर्भावेऽस्ति कश्चिदस्या भावातिशयो यः खलु कान्ताय स्वदेहार्पणरूपायां प्रेमसेवायामुपयुज्यते । सारसङ्ग्रहकारैरस्या एव मधुराया रतेरुत्कर्षद्योतनाय तदुपजीवकानि धामलीलावतारसाधनान्यनुशीलितानि । / শান্তদাস্যসখ্যবাত্সল্যমাধুর্যরুপাণাং রতীনাং চরম উপযোগ: শ্রীমদ্ভগবদ্ভজন এব । তত্র পূর্বপূর্বাভ্যো রতিভ্য উত্তরোত্তরাসামুত্কর্ষো তারতম্যমূলক: । এবঞ্চ মধুরৈব রতি: সর্রশ্রেষ্ঠেতি বৈষ্ণবশাস্ত্রেমতনিষ্কর্ষ: । অস্যাং মধুররতাবন্যেষাং রতিভাবানাং সত্যপ্যন্তর্ভাবেঽস্তি কশ্চিদস্যা ভাবাতিশযো য: খলু কান্তায স্বদেহার্পণরুপাযাং প্রেমসেবাযামুপযুজ্যতে । সারসংগ্রহকারৈরস্যা এব মধুরাযা রেতেরুত্কর্ষদ্যোতনায তদুপজীবকানি ধামলীলাবতারসাধনান্যনুশীলিতানি । / śānta-dāsya-sakhya-vātsalya-mādhurya-rūpāṇāṁ ratīnāṁ carama upayoga śrīmad-bhagavad-bhajana eva. tatra tatra pūrva-pūrvābhyo ratibhya uttarottarāsām utkaro tāratamya-mūlaka. evañ ca madhuraiva rati sarva-śreṣṭheti vaiṣṇava-śāstra-mata-nikara. asyāṁ madhura-ratāv anyeṣāṁ rati-bhāvānāṁ saty apy antar-bhāve ‘sti kaśid asyā bhāvātiśayo ya khalu kāntāya sva-dehārpaa-rūpāyāṁ prema-sevāyām upayujyate. sāra-sagraha-kārair asyā eva madhurāyā rater utkara-dyotanāya tad-upajīvakāni dhāma-līlāvatāra-sādhanāny anuśīlitāni.

 

सैषा मधुरा रतिस्त्रिविधा साधारणी समञ्जसा समर्था चेति । तत्र श्रीकृष्णेन्द्रियसुखतात्पर्यवृत्तिका समर्थैवेतराभ्यामुत्कृष्यते । एनामेव समर्थामधिकृत्यास्मिन्ग्रन्थे श्रीकृष्णप्रेमविषयकं परकीयारतितत्त्वमालोचितम् । चिन्तितञ्च परकीयात्वं बाधकसाधकयुक्तिभि: श्रीकृष्णप्रेयसीनां श्रीव्रजगोपीनाम् । किञ्च ह्लादिनीसारभूता श्रीराधिका सर्वातिशायिनीति प्रतिपादनाय महाभावादितत्त्वस्वरूपमपि प्रदर्शितम् । अत एव प्रथमं प्रकाशनचतुष्टयाख्ये प्रकरणे दुरधिगमं महाभावस्वरूपं निसर्गस्वरूपस्वरूपं समञ्जसासमर्थास्वरूपं कामानुगास्वरूपञ्चेति लक्षणप्रमाणाभ्यां प्रकाशितम् । / সৈষা মধুরা রতিস্ত্রিবিধা সাধারণী সমঞ্জসা সমর্থা চেতি । তত্র শ্রীকৃষ্ণেন্দ্রিযসুখতাত্পর্যবৃত্তিকা সমর্থৈবেতরাভ্যামুত্কৃষ্যতে । এনামেব সমর্থামধিকৃত্যাস্মিন্গ্রন্থে শ্রীকৃষ্ণপ্রেমবিষয়কং পরকীযারতিতৎবমালোচিতম্ ।  চিন্তিতঞ্চ পরকীয়াত্বং বাধকসাধকযুক্তিভি: শ্রীকৃষ্ণপ্রেযসীনাং শ্রীব্রজগোপীনাম্ ।  কিঞ্চ হ্লাদিনীসারভূতা শ্রীরাধিকা সর্বাতিশাযিনীতি প্রতিপাদনায মহাভাবাদিতৎবস্বরূপমপি প্রদর্শিতম্ । অত এব প্রথমং প্রকাশনচতুষ্টযাখ্যে প্রকরনণে দুরধিগমং মহাভাবস্বরুপং কামানুগাস্বরুপঞ্চেতি লক্ষণপ্রমাণাভ্যাং প্রকাশিতম্ । / saiṣā madhurā ratis tri-vidhā sādhāraṇī samañjasā samarthā ceti. tatra śrī-kṛṣṇendriya-sukha-tātparya-vttikā samarthaivetarābhyām utkṛṣyate. enāmeva samarthām adhiktya asmin granthe śrī-kṛṣṇa-prema-viayaka parakīyā-rati-tattvam ālocitam. cintitañ ca parakīyatva bādhaka-sādhaka-yuktibhi śrī-kṛṣṇa-preyasīnāṁ śrī-vraja-gopīnām. kiñca hlādinī-sāra-bhūtā śrī-rādhikā sarvātiśāyinīti pratipādanāya mahābhāvādi-tattva-svarūpam api pradarśitam. ata eva prathama prakāśana-catuṣṭayākhye prakarae duradhigama mahābhāva-svarūpa nisarga-svarūpa-svarūpa samañjasā-samarthā-svarūpa kāmānugā-svarūpañ ceti lakaa-pramāṇābhyāṁ prakāśitam.

 

अथ धामलीलागतानां केषाञ्चिदवान्तरभेदानां यत्स्वरूपेणैकत्वं सालक्षण्यं वेति भ्रान्तं मतं तस्य खण्डनेन प्रदर्शितं वैलक्षण्यचतुष्टयम् । तच्च वैलक्षण्यं यथा । समर्थासमञ्जसारतिभेदहेतुकं श्रीव्रजगोलोकयोर्वैलक्षण्यम्  । परकीयारतिततिकात्यायनीव्रतपरकन्यकारतितत्योर्वैलक्षण्यम् । श्रीकृष्णलीलामत्स्यादिलीलयोर्वैलक्षण्यम् । व्रजजनानामनुकारित्वाननुकारित्वभेदेन साधकरूपतटस्थरूपयोर्वैलक्षण्यञ्च । / অথ ধামলীলাগতানাং কেষাঞ্চিদবান্তরভেদানাং যত্স্বরুপেণোকত্বং সালক্ষণ্যং বেতি ভ্রান্তং মতং তস্য খন্ডনেন প্রদর্শিতং বৈলক্ষণ্যচতুষ্টযম্ । তচ্চ বৈলক্ষণ্যং যথা । সমর্থাসমঞ্জসারতিভেদহেতুকং শ্রীব্রজগোলকযোর্বৈলক্ষণ্যম্ । শ্রীকৃষ্ণলীলামত্স্যাদিলীলযোর্বৈলক্ষণ্যম্ ।  ব্রজজনানামনুকারিত্বাননুকারিত্বভেদেন সাধকরুপতটস্থরূপযোর্বৈলক্ষণ্যঞ্চ ।  / atha dhāma-līlāgatānāṁ keṣāñcid avāntara-bhedānāṁ yat-svarūpeaikatva sālakaya veti bhrānta mata tasya khaṇḍanena pradarśita vailakaya-catuṣṭayam. tac ca vailakaya yathā. samarthā-samañjasā-rati-bheda-hetuka śrī-vraja-golokayor vailakayam. parakīyā-rati-tati-kātyāyanī-vrata-para-kanyakā-rati-tatyor vailakayam. śrī-kṛṣṇa-līlā-matsyādi-līlayor vailakayam. vraja-janānām anukāritvānanukāritva-bhedena sādhaka-rūpa-taastha-rūpayor vailakayañ ca.

 

(क्रमागतोऽयं लेख: – १ / ক্রমাগতোঽযং লেখ: / kramāgato ‘yaṁ lekhaḥ – 1)

 

— व्रजनित्याप्रकटलीलाप्रविष्टा: गौडवैष्णवसम्प्रदायान्तर्गताद्वैताचार्यपरिवारसंरक्षका: श्रीमद्राधारमणगोस्वामिप्रभुपादा: (गृहिण:) वेदान्तभूषणा: बङ्गवारेन्द्रश्रेणिविप्रकुलप्रसूता: {अध्यापका: — चण्डीपुरसंस्कृतपाठशालायां (टोल), नवद्वीपे, गौडबङ्गदेशे} (प्रस्तावनेयं पुनः प्रस्तूयते आशुतोषसंकृतग्रन्थमालायां सारसङ्ग्रहेत्याख्यग्रन्थाद्यस्याऽदिमाऽवृत्ति: प्रकाशिता कलिकाताविश्वविद्यालयात्खृष्ट्राब्दे १९४९मे वर्षे मईमासे) / — ব্রজনিত্যাপ্রকটলীলাপ্রবিষ্টা: গৌডবৈষ্ণবসম্প্রদাযান্তর্গতাদ্বৈচার্যপরিবারসংরক্ষকা: শ্রীমদ্রাধারমণগোস্বামিপ্রভুপাদা: (গৃহিণ:) বেদান্তভূষণা: বঙ্গবারেন্দ্রশ্রেণিবিপ্রকুলপ্রসুতা: {অধ্যাপকা: — চন্ডীপুরসংস্কৃতপাঠশালাযাং (টোল), নবদ্বীপে, গৌডবঙ্গদেশে} (প্রস্তাবনেযং পুন: প্রস্তুযতে আশুতোষসংস্কৃতগ্রন্থমালাযাং সারসংগ্রহেত্যাখ্যগ্রন্থাদ্যস্যাঽদিমাঽবৃত্তি: প্রকাশিতা কলিকাতাবিশ্বিদ্যালয়াত্খৃষ্ট্রাব্দে ১৯৪৯মে বর্ষে মইমাসে) / — vraja-nityāprakaṭa-līlā-praviṣṭāḥ gauḍa-vaiṣṇava-sampradāyāntargatādvaitācārya-parivāra-saṁrakṣakāḥ śrīmad-rādhā-ramaṇa-gosvāmi-prabhupādāḥ (gṛhiṇaḥ) vedānta-bhūṣaṇāḥ baṅga-vārendra-śreṇi-vipra-kula-prasūtāḥ {adhyāpakāḥ — caṇḍīpura-saṁskṛta-pāṭhaśālāyāṁ (ṭola), navadvīpe, gauḍa-baṅga-deśe} (prastavaneyaṁ punaḥ prastūyate āśutoṣa-saṁskṛta-grantha-mālāyāṁ sāra-saṅgrahetyākhya-granthādy asyā ‘dimā ‘vṛttiḥ prakāśitā kalikātā-viśva-vidyālayāt khṛṣṭrābde 1949me varṣe maī-māse)

 

 

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श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तसारसङ्ग्रह – भाग १

 

पारकीयोज्ज्वलरससम्राट् अप्राकृतकवितार्किकसिंह अप्रतिमरूपानुगचूडामणि व्रजरसिकराजसभासभाजनभाजन भगवद्भक्तिरसप्रस्थानदार्शनिकधुरन्धर चैतन्य(राधा+व्रजेन्द्रसुत)चरणचञ्चरीकाग्रग्रण्यश्रीमद्रघुनाथभट्टगोस्वामि(रस मञ्जरी)शिष्यपरिवारान्तर्गत गौडदेशीयश्रीलकृष्णदासकविराजगोस्वामिपाद (कस्तूरी मञ्जरी) के प्रशिष्य व पञ्चनददेशीयश्रीलमुकुन्ददासगोस्वामिपाद (मोदा मञ्जरी) के आश्रित बङ्गविप्रकुलसमूद्भूत श्रीलरूपकवीश्वरगोस्वामिपाद ‘वैरागी’ (रत्न मञ्जरी) के द्वारा विरचित ।

 

भूमिका

 

इस ग्रन्थ में ग्रन्थकार महोदय के द्वारा वैष्णवशास्त्रों में से, विशेषतया गौडीयवैष्णवों के व्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्त के प्रतिपादक ग्रन्थों से सार को समाकर्षित कर प्रस्थापित किया गया है । यहाँ पर सप्रमाण श्रीभगवान् से सम्बन्धित रति (प्रीति), धाम व लीलादि तत्त्वों का सिद्धान्त प्रदर्शित हुआ है । अतएव यह सारसङ्ग्रह नामक ग्रन्थ निश्चित् ही श्रीराधागोविन्ददेव के पदारविन्दों के भजनपिपासु, गौडीयवैष्णवतत्त्वरूपी पायसम् (खीर) के लिये तर्षित (प्यासे) तथा वैष्णवशास्त्रों में निहित तत्त्वों के गवेषकों के लिये अतिलाभकारी है । अत: इस ग्रन्थ के विषय का सङ्क्षेप में अवलोकन किया जाए ।

 

 

[विषय की रूपरेखा]

 

शान्त, दास्य, सख्य, वात्सल्य एवं माधुर्यरूपी रतियों का चरम उपयोग श्रीभगवान् के भजन में ही पर्यवसित है । इनमें भी पूर्ववर्तिनी रतियों से परवर्त्तिनी रतियों का परस्पर तारतम्यमूलक उत्कर्ष सिद्ध है । वैष्णवशास्त्रमत का निष्कर्ष यह है कि मधुररति ही सर्वश्रेष्ठा है । इस माधुर्यरति में अन्यान्य रतिभावादियों का अन्तर्भाव (विलय) होने के कारण यह मधुररति भावातिशायिनी है, जिस कारण से निज प्रियतम की स्वदेहार्पण के द्वारा की गयी प्रेमसेवा में इसकी उपयोगिता है । सारसङ्ग्रहकार के द्वारा इस मधुररति के उत्कर्ष के प्रकाशन के निमित्त इस मधुररति के आश्रित (तदुपजीवी) इन चार तत्त्वों की आलोचना हुयी है – धाम, लीला, अवतार व साधन ।

 

यह मधुरा रति तीन प्रकार की है – साधारणी, समञ्जसा तथा समर्था । इनमें श्रीकृष्ण की इन्द्रियों के सुख में ही जिस की एकमात्र वृत्ति (स्वाभाविकी क्रिया) है, वैसी समर्थारति अन्य दो रतियों से उत्कर्ष को प्राप्त है । इस समर्थारति को ही विषय बनाकर इस ग्रन्थ में श्रीकृष्णप्रेमविषयक परकीया श्रेणीगता रति का तत्त्व आलोचित हुआ है । बाधिका (विरोध करने वाली) एवं साधिका (समर्थन देने वाली) – इन दोनों प्रकार की युक्तियों से श्रीकृष्ण की प्रेयसीयाँ व्रजगोपिकाओं का परकीयापन (किसी और से विवाहित रहना) आलोचित हुआ है । भगवान् की स्वरूपभूता ह्लादिनी शक्ति की सारभूतविग्रहा श्रीमती वार्षभानवी राधिका ही अन्य समस्त व्रजसीमन्तिनीगण (व्रजवधूटी गोपीयो में) में सर्वातिशायिनी है (और सब से बढ कर है) – इस सिद्धान्त के प्रतिपादन के निमित्त महाभावादि तत्त्व के स्वरूप की आलोचना हुई है । अतएव इस ग्रन्थ के सर्व प्रथम प्रकरण ‘प्रकाशनचतुष्टय’ में दुरधिगम (बहुत ही कठिन हो जिसका अवबोधन या ज्ञान) वैसे ‘महाभावस्वरूप’, ‘निसर्गस्वरूपस्वरूप’, ‘समञ्जसासमर्थास्वरूप’ तथा ‘कामानुगास्वरूप’ – इन चार ‘स्वरूप’ तत्त्वों (प्रमेयों) का उनके लक्षण (परिभाषा) व प्रमाण (स्रोत) के सहित प्रकाशन हुआ है ।

 

श्रीभगवान् के धाम, लीला आदि तत्त्वों के जो अवान्तर भेद (भीतर की उपश्रेणीयाँ) है – उनके स्वरूपों में सालक्षण्य (पूर्णतया एक समानता) है – इस प्रकार के भ्रान्त मत के खण्डन के लिये ‘वैलक्षण्यचतुष्टय’ (चार प्रकार की असमानता) नामका द्वितीय प्रकरण रखा गया है । वह चतुर्धा वैलक्षण्य इस प्रकार का है – १) समञ्जसा व समर्था रतियों के भेद के कारण व्रज एवं गोलोक के बीच में विलक्षणता (असमानता या वैशिष्ट्यमूलक तारतम्य), २) परकीयाभावमयी (अन्य से विवाहिता) तथा कात्यायनीव्रतपरायणा कन्यकाभावमयी (अविवाहिता) व्रजगोपीयों के बीच में विलक्षणता, ३) श्रीनन्दनदन कृष्ण व मत्स्यादि अन्य भगवत्स्वरूपों के मध्य विलक्षणता तथा ४) व्रजजन के (व्रज के नित्यसिद्ध भगवत्पार्षदों के) अनुकारित्व (अनुसरण) व अननुकारित्व (अननुसरण) के भेद से ‘साधकरूप’ व ‘तटस्थरूप’ का वैलक्षण्य ।

 

(क्रमागत लेख – १)

 

— भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वर गुरुपादाचार्य स्वामी के द्वारा अनुवादित (नित्यलीलाप्रविष्ट श्रीमद्राधारमणगोस्वामिप्रभुपाद वेदान्तभूषण महोदय के ईस्वी. सन् १९४९ में कलिकाता विश्वविद्यालय की आशुतोषसंस्कृतगन्थमाला के अन्तर्गत प्रकाशित ‘सारसङ्ग्रह:’ ग्रन्थ के अवतरणिकारूप उपर प्रस्तुत मूल संस्कृत अंश का हिन्दी अनुवाद)

 

 

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Śrī-vraja-bhakti-rasa-siddhānta-sāra-saṅgraha (Essential Collection of the Principles of the Succulent Mellows of Vraja-bhakti) – Pt. 1

 

 

Composed by Śrīla Rūpa Kavīśvara Gosvāmipāda ‘Vairāgī’ (Ratna Mañjarī Sakhī) hailing from the vipra-kula of Baṅga-deśa – who is, the Emperor of the domain of divinely aesthetical & brilliantly succulent mellow of paramour love, the lion amongst the flock of transcendental logicians and poets, unexcelled crest jewel among the ardent apostles of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmipāda (Rūpa Mañjarī Sakhī), the dignified candidate of respect allotted by the royal court of the connoisseurs of Vraja-rasa, the paramount champion amongst the theologians of the chemistry of devotional love, a member of the apostolic family of Śrīla Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmipāda (Rasa Mañjarī Sakhī) – the foremost in the midst of the honeybees sucking the ambrosia emanating from the lotus-like feet of Śrī Caitanyadeva (Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣna in a conjoined identity), the grand-disciple of Śrīla Kṛṣnadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmipāda (Kastūrikā Mañjarī Sakhī) hailing from Gauḍa-deśa and the disciple of Śrīla Mukundadāsa Gosvāmipāda (Modā Mañjarī Sakhī) of Pañcanada province.

 

Foreward

 

The Sāra-saṅgraha (Vrajabhaktirasasiddhāntasārasāṅgraha), authored by the great-grand disciple of Śrīla Raghunāthabhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, is an eminent classic which seeks to set forth the doctrine of Gauḍīya Vaiṣnavism as a systematized theological school of divine amorous love. It will not be an exaggeration to say that Bengal Vaiṣṇavism, in spite of its wide-spread jurisdiction, is not, critically, comprehended with all its logical bearings even by the most enthusiastic scholars whose acquaintance with other branches of Indian philosophy and religion is beyond cavil. It is unfortunate that the philosophical substratum of the Vaiṣṇavic culture of Bengal is not, properly, appreciated owing to the lack of, critically, edited standard works on the subject dealing with the fundamental categories in a systematic fashion and within a reasonable compass. The present work jubilantly satisfies this desideratum and hence, it must be accorded highest rank in the enumeration of standard text-books on Gauḍīya Vaiṣnava philosophy. The logical language of this work is, highly, perspicuous and precise so much so that it is, quite, on par with the classical Indian Philosophical texts like the Vedānta-paribhāṣā of Dharmarājādhvarīndra and the Mīmāṁṣānyāyaprakāśaḥ of Āpadeva.

 

This book is published for the first time in the history since its composition on palm-leaved manuscript(s) in the late17th Century CE (by Śrī Rūpa Kavīśvara Gosvāmipāda in Śrīdhāma Vṛndāvanam) and has been edited with scrupulous care and attention by our young colleague and ex-pupil Śrī Kṛṣṇagopāla Gosvāmī Śāstrī M.A., P.R.S., Smṛti-mīmāṁsā-tīrtha & the Lecturer in Sanskrit at Calcutta University – all under the guidance and tutelage of his father, the late Prabhupāda Rādhāramaṇa Gosvāmī Vedāntabhūṣaṇa, who was the greatest authority on the philosophy and law of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava school. Though the main brunt of the labour involved in the collation of the texts and the like to make the edition a critical one has been borne by Śrī K.G. Gosvāṁi Śāstrī, the guidance and supervision of the departed savant have left a distinctive impress upon the edition of this abstruse work.

 

We need not peep into the dissertation of the materials which have formed the basis of the present publication, because the learned editor (K.G. Śāstrī), under the authoritative guidance of his father, (Prabhupāda Rādhāramaṇa GosvāmīVedāntabhūṣaṇa) has, very elaborately, dealt with all these queries in his English Prelude. The book is adorned with an elaborate Introduction in English and Sanskrit, in which a critical evaluation of the contents and the historical background, both from the standpoint of textual criticism and chronological setting, have been presented with consummate ability and mastery of data. The, illustriously, learned editor has spared no pains to make this, obviously, difficult book intelligible and interesting to an average devotee student and, also, to an inquisitive layman who wants to have a broad acquaintance with the fundamentals prevailing the mysticism of Caitanyaite Vaiṣṇavism.

 

We are definite that a diligent perusal of this book will disabuse a student of Indian religious thought of the facile misconception that the cult of divine love which forms the staple of the Vaiṣṇava school of Bengal is based upon an emotional and sentimental psychology which cannot withstand the scrutiny of logical analysis. The various types of affection for the Divinity have been classified not, only, with the reference to their psychological characteristics, but have been substantiated by the rational analysis of their philosophical foundation, too. The best calibre of love that a spiritual aspirant can entertain for the Lord is embodied in the relation between the two persons of transcendental opposite gender – a supra-mundane divine man and a likewise trans-phenomenal divine woman. Love attains its highest excellence and manifests its supreme sweetness and grace when it occurs between a man and a woman transcendental to the mundane phenomenon. It is more intense and poignant than the love that subsists between two friends or between a parent and a son. In the case of divine love, also, it reaches its maximum vigour and climax of perfection when the devotee loves the Divine Being with the ardour and intensity of the love which a woman in love bears to her lover. That devotee is, factually, paramount and most blessed who relinquishes the pride of mundane masculinity (and even that of mundane feminine mood) and becomes, psychologically and spiritually, metamorphosed into a lady in love, but all under the celestial impact of the blissful potency of tat-tat-bhāvecchānugā version of kāmānugā-bhakti (this kāmānugā has no whatsoever connection with the mundane lust or laukika-kāma; rather, it is alaukika-kāma or prema which, externally, resembles some traits of laukika-kāma as alluded by the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇiḥ verse – “premaiva gopa-rāmāṇāṁ kāma ity agamat prathām”). Herein, the beloved is Godhead – the Supreme Lord of all universes. But such an Absolute God as the darling is perceived as shorn of all His majesty and power. He remains nothing but the object of love – a lover and a receiver of love in a human-like but divine countenance.

 

The Lord has many forms; He is the sovereign of the total cosmos. But to the lover, He does not come with the pomp of an autocrat and His power and majesty do not appeal to him. They are irrelevant to love and rather tend to disguise the Eternal Lover in Him. Love is the highest manifestation of the Divine nature and the Vaiṣṇava finds in Śrī Kṛṣna of Vṛndāvana, the pattern and paragon of this, sweetly, condensed and, fragrantly, enchanting love. The other incarnations of God are but partial exponents of the Divine essence. The perfect relation of love is exemplified in the love of the cowherd milkmaids (Gopīs) of Vraja for Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

 

Fondness prevalent between a man and a woman is manifested in conjugal (marital) relationship, also. The love possessed by Śrī Lakṣmī for Her husband Lord Nārāyaṇa in Mahāvaikuṇtḥa of the divine sky, nay, the tenderness contained in the bosoms of the multifarious Goddesses of Fortune located in Goloka is, also, not regarded as the highest expression of it. Godhead is manifested there in His infinite power and glory, and love is, only, one of the attributes. It is tempered with admiration and feelings of awe, reverence and majestic opulence i.e. ‘aiśvarya-bhāva’.

 

However, to the cowherd damsels of Vraja (Vṛndāvanam – both its manifest display/prakaṭa-prakāśa & the non-manifest display/aprakaṭa-prakāśa — on Earth; this excludes the mundane display/māyika prakāśa of Vraja), God is the supreme male – eternal object of devotional love. The Gopī is enamoured of Kṛṣṇa not because of His power and majesty for His own sake. Conjugal love (dāmpatya-prema of śṛṅgāra) ranks low, because it does not run any risk. On the contrary, the approval of society and the appreciation of the custodians of law and order furnish an incentive to such love. Even when the love is most intense in marital relation i.e. ‘svakīya-sambandha’ and the wife finds supreme satisfaction in promoting the jubilance of her consort, it is not, entirely, disinterested (bereft of self-centred motives) and spontaneous.

 

The love of the Gopīs {who are a class of women married, apparently, to other males (those males being non-different expansions of Śrī Kṛṣṇa only)} for Śrī Nandanandana stands in a distinct category altogether. It is, entirely, disinterested (cent percent selfless) and self-effacing. There is not the slightest incentive from self-love – hence, denying the possibility of the famous Upaniṣadic policy, commonly, seen in the worldly dealings – “ātmanas tu kāmāya sarvam idaṁ priyaṁ bhavati” (all objects lovable are loved, only, due to their perception as pleasure obtaining sources to the self – by a person loving them; those objects are not loved for their own sake). The highest satisfaction of the Gopī in the ‘samarthā’ type of love is derived from the realisation that her lover, Kṛṣṇa, is content.

 

In the ‘samañjasā’ type, self-gratification is also an element in it, though it is not the predominant motive, pivot or even the invariable concomitant of it. This classification of types of love has a sound rational basis.

 

Self-love or ‘kāma’ (mundane lust) is the supreme obsession of ordinary creatures. There is nothing elevating or ennobling in it. It is, properly, known as lust and to address it as love will be its unnecessary and unjust promotion. Even the lust of brutes and their mating is inspired by this incentive of self-gratification, solely, sprouted from the carnal plane.

 

Based on Ujjvala-nīlamaṇiḥ by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, the crest jewel of all transcendental connoisseurs, when the said self-love or lust requires Śrī Kṛṣna as the fulfiller, it relinquishes its, ordinarily, known designation of kāma and is transformed into ‘sādhāraṇī-rati’ as seen displayed by the hunchback maid of Kaṁsa viz., Trivakrā Kubjādevī of Mathurā.

 

On the other hand, love rises in the scale of purity in proportion as the egoistic impulse is subordinated and the happiness of the other party gains upper hand. The samañjasā type of love embodies the highest fulfilment from the bard’s standpoint. But, it was reserved for Caitanyaite Vaiṣṇava theologians to evolve the unprecedented conception of samarthā by linking it with the implicit evidences portrayed in the crest jewel of all sacred texts i.e. Śrīmad-bhāgavatam.

 

Love reaches its final culmination in voluntary sacrifice of the gratification of the petty ego; the Gopī makes herself the means and not the end. Her supreme satisfaction consists in the dedication of her whole personality – physical, mental and spiritual – to the enjoyment of Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Rādhā is the supreme manifestation of this love. None can compete with Her in this respect. Kṛṣṇa finds the paramount culmination of love in His dalliance with Her as the śruti corroborates – “sa ekākī na ramate sa dvitīyam aicchat” & the “ātma-krīḍaḥ ātma-ratiḥ ātma-mithunaḥ…”.

 

We have alluded to parakīyā love and the supreme status accorded to it in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition of romantic aesthetics and the related supra-mundane divine eroticism. The ‘parakīyā-nāyikā’ is the wedded wife of some other person and according to Vedic convention and legal sanction, she is, solely, bound to her husband. Fidelity to the husband is the sine qua non of married love. The highest and perfected  expression of such love is typified by the love of Devī Sītā for Śrī Rāmacandra. The saints and poets have bestowed their highest encomiums upon it and our admiration knows no bounds. But, the Vaiṣṇava of the Gauḍīya seminary, though he bows his head in admiration, does not think it to be the highest fulfilment of love. The pangs of suffering and the corroding pain of cruel injustice add poignancy to the love of Sītā. But, though the selflessness of Her love transgresses the possibility of any question mark, the Gauḍiya Vaiṣṇava philosopher does not let us forget or ignore that there is a silver lining within the outer cloud of misery. The approbation of society, the admiration of saints and philosophers, the homage of the multitude are assured, and though they do not give any aid or do not make any contribution to the fortitude and self-resignation of Sītā, they give a halo to Her love.

 

Conversely, in the case of the Gopīs, there is nothing but scandal, execration of society, total rejection of the laukika and vaidika maryādās/ārya-patha (vide Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 10.47.61 – “…yā dustyajaṁ sva-janam ārya-pathañ ca hitvā…” + 10.32.21 – “evaṁ mad-arthojjhita-loka-veda…”), calumny of the mass and condemnation of the leaders of society and public opinion. There is no redeeming feature in the abyss of vilification into which they have casted themselves headlong. Their passion of love consumes all consideration of social and legal (Vedic śruti/smṛti related scriptural) sanctions. The Gopī willingly immolates herself on the altar of love and in this, she, completely, forgets her interests, both of this world and the next. It will be a travesty of justice, if we liken her to the, ordinarily, fallen woman – for a great paramahaṁsa and vītarāgī brahmaniṣṭha ātmārama as Mahāmuni Śukadeva would not have found his solace in reciting the narrations portraying mundane lusty sports of laukīkī vyabhcāriṇī strī. In the ordinary wold, the woman who leaves the protection of society and family is impelled by passion of self-gratification. But, the Gopī has no notion for her own pleasure. It is the delight of her Beloved that acts as the sole impetus (“tat-sukha-sukhitvam” + “pramāṇaṁ tatra gopikā” + “loka-veda-vyāpāra-nyāsaḥ” – aphorisms of Nārada-bhakti-sūtram).  For all such reasons, even Mahālakṣmīdevī, the supreme chaste consort of Nārāyaṇa, desires to obtain the company of Nandanandana Kṛṣṇa in Vraja, but does not obtain that destination, only, enjoyed by the Gopikās. Also, Śrī Kṛṣṇa cannot fulfil His promise made in Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā“ye yathā māṁ prapadyante……” when countered by the non-compensable love harboured in the bosom of the Gopikās. Evidences are perceivable in Śrīmad-bhāgavatam 10.47.60 – “nāyaṁ śriyo ‘ṅga u nitānta-rateḥ prasādaḥ….” + 10.32.22 – “na pāraye ‘haṁ niravadya-saṁyujāṁ…”.

 

(Serialized Essay – Pt. 1)

 

— Sir Satkari Mukherjee – The Asutosh Professor of Sanskrit – University of Calcutta – May of 1949 AD & heavily, edited/refurbished by Gurupādācārya Svāmī {The treatise has been e-published for the first time in Roman script accompanied by an English & Hindi renditions (along with a Sanskrit commentary) endowed with a penetrating exposition by Caitanya-sampradāyī Advaitācārya-prabhu-daikṣa-paramparāgata Gauḍīya-rāddhānta-pīṭhāḍhīśvara Bhakti-rasa-vedānta-pīṭhādhīśvara Gurupādācārya ‘Āmnāya Vācaspati’ Svāmī hailing from the same theological lineage as the classical author of the book.}

 

(URL to the essay — https://goo.gl/GX8EtR)

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