गौडीय वैष्णव राद्धान्त (सिद्धान्त) एवं तत्सर्वोत्कर्ष – भाग २

 

चार्वाक दर्शन

 

 

 

‘दर्शन’ शब्द का अर्थ है कि जो किसी भी पदार्थ की वास्तविकता से हमे परिचित करवाये । लेकिन सभी उपलब्ध दर्शन वास्तविकता से परिचित नही करवाते – भले ही वे सभी ‘दर्शन’ होने का दावा ठोकते हो । ऐसा ही एक दर्शन है चार्वाकमत । चार्वाक के मत में देह (शरीर) ही ‘मैं’ होता है और इसीलिए ‘मैं’ अथवा ‘जीवात्मा’- इन शब्दों से देहातिरिक्त कोई अन्य पदार्थ संसूचित नही होता है । परलोक एवं पुनर्जन्म जैसा कुछ नही होता । इस देह के भस्मीभूत हो जाने पर ही हमारा सब कुछ शेष हो जाता है । “भस्मीभूतस्य देहस्य पुनरागमनं कुत: ।” जब ये देह ही ‘मैं’ हु, तब तो इस देह के भस्मीभूत हो जाने पर ‘मैं’ भी भस्मीभूत हो जाउँगा । इस घटना के पश्चात् ‘मै’ कैसे और कहाँसे पुनः अस्तित्व में आ सकता हुँ? अतएव जितने दिनों के लिये हमारा शरीर स्वस्थ है, हमें सुखभोग प्राप्त करने के लिये चेष्टा करनी चाहिये और ये ही सङ्गत है, इसीमे जीवन की सार्थकता है । ‘खाओ, पीओ और मौज करो’, ‘अमन-चमन करो’, ‘जलसा मनाओ’, ‘ऐश करो’ – यही चार्वाकनीति अथवा लुभाने वाली वाणी वाले की नीति है । “यावज्जीवं सुखं जीवेत् ऋणं कृत्वा घृतं पिबेत् ।” जितने दिन रहो, सुख से रहो । इस सुखभोग के लिये ही देह की शक्ति मिली है । देह की शक्ति की रक्षा एवं वृद्धि के लिए घी पीओ! और यदि धन का अभाव है तो उधार लेकर भी घृत का सङ्ग्रह करो । और यदि ऋण चुका नही पाते हो, तो भय किस से है? मृत्यु के पश्चात् परलोक एवं परकाल जैसा तो कुछ है ही नही – न दीखायी देने के कारण इन चर्मचक्षुओं से भला! इसीलिये किसी काल्पनिक यमलोक एवं यमयातना का भय क्यों? मृत्यु के पश्चात् तो तुम्हारा अस्तित्व ही नही है । तो फिर कब कोई कैसे तुम्हारे पास से उस उधार की वसूली कर पायेगा? – यही चार्वाकनीति है ।

 

चार्वाकमत – अङ्गना(स्त्री)-सङ्ग से उत्पादित मैथुन सुख ही ‘परम-पुरुषार्थ’ है । और इस देह में व्याधियो के कारण जो दुःखादि की अनुभूति होती है वही ‘नरक’ है । राज्य का राजा ही ‘परमेश्वर’ है । उसके अतिरिक्त और कोई परमेश्वर नही होता है । जो प्रत्यक्ष में दीखे वही सच है एवं वही ‘प्रमाण’ है । इस भोग के घर स्वरूप स्थूल पाञ्चभौतिक देह के नाश को ही ‘मुक्ति’ कहते है । जो वस्तु प्रत्यक्षीभूत नही, उसका तो अस्तित्व ही नही । ‘परलोक’, ‘पुनर्जन्म’ – आदि प्रत्यक्ष के विषय न होने के कारण उनका अस्तित्व स्वीकार्य नही है । क्षिति (पृथिवी), अप (जल), तेज (अग्नि) और वायु – यही चार ‘तत्त्व’ है, क्योकि ये चार ही प्रत्यक्ष के विषय है । आकाश (व्योम) प्रत्यक्ष का विषय न होने के कारण स्वीकार्य तत्त्व नही है ।

 

उल्लिखित चार तत्त्वो की परिणति ही ‘देह’ है । इन के मिश्रण से ही देह में एक प्रकार की मादकता जन्म लेती है – इसी को देह का ‘स्वभाव’ कहते है । इसी को ‘चैतन्यशक्ति’ कहते है । अलग से कोई चिन्मय आत्मा जैसा कुछ नही होता । इस तत्त्वचतुष्टय के जिस प्रकार के आपसी सम्मिलन से जो चेतनाशक्ति उद्भाविता होती है, उस सम्मिलन के नष्ट होने से ही चेतनाशक्ति अन्तर्हित हो जाती है एवं इसी को ‘मृत्यु’ कहा जाता है ।

 

देहसर्वस्व लोक (जिनके लिये पार्थिव देह ही सब कुछ है) के निकट चार्वाकदर्शन के उपर उल्लिखित वाक्यसमूह आपातत: (बाह्यरूप से) बडे मनोरम या सुहाने लगते है और मन को भाते है, अतएव ऐसी वाणी को ‘चारु+वाक्’ कहा जाता है । अतः यह ‘चार्वाक’ अथवा उपर से सुन्दर दीखायी देने वाला मत कहलाता है । भोगवादी एवं भौतिकवादि जनसाधारण लोक के बीच में यह मत सहजरूप से विस्तार (आयत) को प्राप्त होने के कारण इसी ‘लोकायतिकमत’ भी कहा जाता है ।

 

इस चार्वाक मत में जीवात्मा के एवं ईश्वर के अस्तित्व को तथा वेदो के प्रामाण्य को नही स्वीकारा गया है । वेदप्रामाण्य के अस्वीकृत होने पर इस मत को वेदानुगत लोग ‘नास्तिकदर्शन’ के रूप में पहचानते है । ऐसा कहा जाता है कि देवगुरु बृहस्पति ही चार्वाकदर्शन के मूल प्रवर्त्तक है । बृहस्पति ने स्वर्गवासी देवताओ के निमित्त ही इस दर्शन का प्रचार किया था और उन्हीं से अनेक लोगों ने निरापद्रूप से (अबाधितरूप से) इस दर्शन का अनुसरण किया उस स्वर्गलोक में जो की वहा की परस्थिति के लिये कुछ अंश तक ठीक था, क्योकि स्वर्गवासी जीव निरोग, निर्जर, मृत्युरहित एवं बहुत भोग करने के उपरान्त भी निरवसाद (श्रमहीन) बने रहते है । परन्तु पृथ्वीलोक के सन्दर्भ में यहाँ के प्राणी निरोग, निर्जर व निर्मृत्यु नहीं हैं, तथा बहुभोग करने पर जीव अवसादग्रस्त रोगादि के कवल में (चन्गुल) में पतित हो जाते हैं । अतएव यथेच्छ (इच्छा के अनुकूल) एवं अबाधित सुखभोग का प्रयास पृथ्वीलोकवासी मर्त्यजीव (जिसके देह को एक दिन मरना है) के पक्ष में सुख से विपरीत फल को आमन्त्रित करता है ।

 

क्रमश:

 

 

 

  • भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वरा: आचार्यश्री: वा गुरुपादा:

 

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Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Theology & Its Triumph – Pt. 2

The philosophy of Lokāyatikas alias Cārvākīya Nāstikyavāda.

 

 

 

In Cārvāka’s outlook, the grossly perceptible body ( i.e. ‘sthūla-pāñcabhautika-deha’) is self-same as oneself (i.e. ātmā); a person’s identity is nothing more besides a visibly living carnal chunk. The theories of re-embodiment and unearthly attainable destinations (i.e. ‘punar-janma’ & ‘para-loka’), both lower and higher, do not stand true on existential grounds. During crematory incineration, the self perpetually ceases to exist. When factually, the breathing corpus is our self, we too terminate existence concurrently with the destruction of the body.  Subsequent to this funereal destruction, in what way is it probable for us to undertake a renewed identity in a new location? Hence, for the duration of our current life, we should spare our time in sensual amusement without any worry for all metaphysical nonentities. Thus the success of life is marked. Feasting, mating, and slumbering are the acme and epitome of Cārvāka’s perspective. Till the period visual power is possessed by one, happiness is experienced. Corporeal vigour is a must for such sensual gratification. And for the enhancement of said carnal vital power and its endurance, consumption of clarified butter stands out as essential. If one is bereft of financial assets, even undergoing monetary debt, he should strive for and obtain the clarified butter. If suppose, one is unable to clear the incurred debt, there remain fear and obligation for no one. Why? Because, even the imaginary notion of future for us does not exist due to our irrevocable non-existence at the juncture of demise. Thus the very possibility of any resurrection in a new or old form is ruled out. And due to this reason, which benefactor, in which place and time, will demandingly approach us for the supposed reimbursement of such an owed due?

 

In the assessment of Cārvāka, the bliss gained from an erotic union with a damsel marks the objectivity of life’s tenure (i.e. ātyantika-puruṣārtha’). For the span this body is endured, whatever befallen misery underwent should be deemed as the actual inferno and hellish condition (i.e.’naraka-prāpti’).  A sovereign monarch is the only true God without any competitor ( i.e. īśvara’). When the presently possessed utensil of enjoyment i.e. the body expires, the emancipation (i.e. ‘moka’) is attained. For ascertainment of such conclusive truths (i.e ‘prameya’), the phenomenally perceptive gross testimony (i.e. ‘bhautika-jaa-pratyaka’) is the sole true evidence ( i.e. ‘pramāṇa’). Whichever entity cannot be verified by this mundane perceptive evidence, the existence of the said object becomes deniable (i.e. ‘avāstavika-padārtha’). Since the actuality of non-Earthly entities like higher planetary systems, reincarnation etc. is not verifiable by grossly perceptive proof, its possibility is untenable and thus, is utterly rejected. Being rooted on the substratum of bhauktika-pratyaka-pramāṇa, only the quadruple elements viz.,  Earth, water, fire, and air ( i.e. ‘kiti, jala, pāvaka, samīra’) prove to be the factual substances. Because ether (i.e. ‘gagana’) flunks to pass the exam of perceptive testimony, it is discounted from the enumeration of actual substances.

 

Aforementioned quadruple elements amalgamate to form the present gross body. Based on a peculiar combination of these substances, a unique intoxicating condition is derived which comes to be celebrated as one’s nature (i.e. ‘svabhāva’) and the same is designated as consciousness (i.e. ‘cetanāśakti’). The death is nothing but the reversal of the said process i.e. when the unique blend of quadruple elements causal to the manifestation of consciousness becomes defunct by mutual disassociation, the consciousness also forsakes the corpus culminating in death (i.e. ‘mtyu’).

 

For those worldly beings entrapped in the embodied conception, the aforesaid assertions of Lokāyatika views appear very much apparently palatable and hence, the address ‘Cārvākīya-mata’ come into play. Due to its extensive dissemination and acceptance by the masses in common, it has also come to be known as ‘Lokāyatika-mata’.

 

In the beliefs of Cārvāka, the credibility of Vedic literature is repudiated to the last extent possible. Moreover, the existence of the eternality of individual spirit souls as well as that of the Godhead is wholly washed off. Due to non-acceptance of the reliability and validity of Vedas, the Lokāyatika philosophy is generally called as Oriental Agnosticism (i.e. ‘nāstikya-vāda’).

 

Sage Bṛhaspati, the mentor of celestial demigods, is conventionally believed to be the classical propagator of atheism systematically laid down by Cārvāka much later. For the enlightenment of demigods, Bṛhaspati promulgated the said doctrine. This is so, because the celestial entities were able to ensue this theory devoid of obstructions due to their spontaneous healthful physique capable of actualizing multifarious sensual enjoyment not afflicted by old age and depression. Contrastingly, in the dissimilar settings of the mortal planet i.e. the Earth, implementation of such a doctrine is not possible wholly and smoothly due to the inherently intermittent afflictions of maladies and the inevitable arrival of the worn out age i.e. the old age. Besides that, the mortal being is prone to moroseness emanating from the natural frustration produced by the incessantly growing dissatisfaction, which in sequence, is instigated by the discontented lust (i.e. ‘kāma’) arising out of mundane mode of passion (i.e. ‘rajo-gua’) as also substantiated by BG 3.37 and in the famous tales of King Yayāti and Pururavā mentioned in Mahābhārata and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Additionally, caused by excessive sensual reciprocation, a person is entrapped by varied detrimental ailments as also corroborated by the following stanza attributed to Ādya Śaṅkarācārya’s Moha-mudgara alias Carpaṭ-pañjarikā Stotram (29th Verse) –

 

sukhata kriyate rāmā-bhoga paścād hanta śarīre roga /

yadyapi loke maraa śaraa tadapi na muñcati pāpācaraam //

 

Hoariest reference to the Lokāyatika understanding is found in Śrī-viṣṇu-mahāpurāṇa adorned by  Śrī-viṣṇu-cittīyam Commentary of Śrī Viṣṇucittārya of Śrī-sampradāya (vide VP 3.18.23-35) and the same treatise commented upon by Śrīdhara-svāmīpāda (vide VP 3.18.21-33), wherein the personated Delusion (i.e. Māyāmoha) persuades his fellow demoniac pupils to traverse the agnostic path.

 

Another earliest mention can also be seen in

 

In his famed compendium Sarva-darśana-sagraha, Śrī Mādhavācārya Vidyāraṇya Svāmī has vividly portrayed the opinion of Cārvāka in 1.1st and 1.14th subsections.

 

Śrī Śaṅkarācārya too has affirmed similar in his classical compendium Sarva-siddhānta-sagraha (2.1-15).

 

Śrīpāda Ānandatīrtha Purṇaprajña Madhvācārya also contentiously discourses on the Lokāyatika ideology in Śrī Madhva-vijaya (15.43-44) of Śrī Nārāyaṇa Paṇḍitācārya as follows –

 

āmnāyanām amanatve dharmāder apramāṇatā /

dharmādy abhāve no māna pratyakaika-pramāṇina // (xxxxiii)

na paurueya vacana prāmāṇyena viniścitam /

paurueyatvato yad vad vākyam unmatta-bhāṣitam // (xxxxiv)

 

Śrīpādācārya Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa also expounds Cārvāka’s agnosticism along these lines, in his Sūkmāikā sub-commentary on the avataraika-bhāṣyam of Śrī Govinda-bhāṣyam Commentary on Śrī Brahma-sūtra

 

“tatra caitanya-viśiṣṭa-deha eva ātmā dehātirikta ātmani pramāṇābhāvāt pratyakaika-pramāṇa-vāditayā anumānāder anagīkārea prāmāṇyābhāvāt. aganāliganādi janya sukham eva puruṣārtha. na ca asya dukha-sambhinnatayā puruṣārthatvam eva na asti iti mantavyam avarjanīyatayā prāptasya dūḥkhasya parihārea sukha-mātrasya eva bhoktavyatvād iti cārvākāḥ.”  

 

Śrīla Rādhādāmodara Gosvāmīpāda (the dīkṣā-guru of BDV) critically analyses with ridicule, the epistemological viewpoint of Cārvāka’s Materialism, in his Vedānta-syamantaka (1.4-5) –

 

“teu pratyaka-mātra-vādinā cārvākeṇāpratipanna sandigdho viparyasto vā pumān aśakyo vyutpādayitum | na cārvāg-dṛśā pratyakea pupāntara-vartino’jñāna-sandeha-viparyayāḥ śakyāṁ pratipattum | na cānavadhta-para-gatāānādir vaktu pravtto grāhya-vāk prekṣāvatām ||iv||

 

tasmād anicchatāpi tenānumānam upādeyam eva | ata sa parihasyate—

 

cārvāka tava cārv-agī jārato vīkya garbhiṇīm |

pratyaka-mātra-viśvāso ghana-śvāsa kim ujjhasi || iti |

 

tena ca para-gatān ajñānādīn abhiprāya-bhedād vākya-bhedāl ligad anumāya tad-ajñānādi-parihāre pravttā grāhya-vāk syād iti ||v||

 

Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedānta Svāmī Prabhupāda also confirms the same (CC 1.7.119’s BV Purport) –

 

“Unfortunately, most of them think that they are the body and should therefore enjoy the material senses irresponsibly since when death comes everything will be finished. This atheistic philosophy also flourished in India, where it was sometimes propagated by Cārvāka Muni, who said:

 

ṛṇa ktvā ghta pibet yāvaj jīvet sukha jīvet

bhasmī-bhūtasya dehasya kuta punar āgamano bhavet

 

His theory was that as long as one lives one should eat as much ghee as possible. In India, ghee (clarified butter) is a basic ingredient in preparing many varieties of food. Since everyone wants to enjoy nice food, Cārvāka Muni advised that one eat as much ghee as possible.”

 

 

Contd.

 

 

 

— Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādḥīśvara Ācārya Śrī Gurupāda

 

Link / सूत्र —  https://goo.gl/dNV01g

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