गौडीय वैष्णव राद्धान्त (सिद्धान्त) एवं तत्सर्वोत्कर्ष – भाग १

 

विभिन्न दार्शनिक मतवाद समूह की उत्पत्ति का हेतु

 

 

जगत में सकल लोक सुख की अपेक्षा रखता है । सुख के निमित्त ही सभी का प्रयास होता है । उन प्रयासों के फल से चित्तविनोदक कोई एक वस्तु अनेक समय के पश्चात् प्राप्त होती है । उसीको मन में सुख मान कर संसारी जीव उसका आस्वादन करता है । सुख चाहिये ऐसा बोलने वाले कभी भी दुःखप्राप्ति की आकाङ्क्षा नही रखते । दुःखलाभ के निमित्त कोई किसी भी प्रकार की चेष्टा करता नही पाया जाता । यहाँ तक कि अपने शरीर की हत्या करने वाला भी उस मरण के पश्चात् सुख प्राप्ति कि सम्भावना को ही सम्भावित देखते हुये आत्महत्या करता है । अतएव दुःख किसी भी प्रकार से न आये वैसी ही चेष्टा सभी करते देखे जाते है । तथापि दुःख आ पडा है इस प्रकार बोलते हुये लोग उसका भोग करते है । पर उस प्रकार का भोग वे अनिच्छापूर्वक करते है, मानो दुःख ने ही बलपूर्वक अपना भोग करवा लिया हो! इस प्रकार के दुःख से पूर्णतया अबाधित व निर्मल सुख ही सकल जन का काम्य है । पर यह किस प्रकार सम्भव है, इसके निर्धारण के निमित्त मनीषीगण चिन्तारत रहा करते हैं । किन्तु इस प्रकार की चिन्ता के फलस्वरूप ही तो दर्शनशास्त्र का उद्भव होता है! भिन्न भिन्न मनीषी भिन्न भिन्न भाव से इस विषय पर चिन्तारत रहते हैं, और इसी कारण से दार्शनिक मतवाद भी भिन्न भिन्न है ।

 

कुछ कुछ दार्शनिकगण केवल इस संसार के सुखलाभ के लिये ही लालायित रहते हैं, और वे उसके उपाय के उद्भावन की चेष्टा करते रहते है । दुःख के कारण को दूरीभूत करने के लिये उनकी चेष्टाओ का प्राधान्य नही रहता; बल्कि उनका प्रयास रहता है सुख की वन्या (नदी) में दुःख को प्रवाहित कर देने का । तो कुछ कुछ मनीषी दुःखनिवृत्ति एवं उसके साथ ही साथ सुखप्राप्ति के लिये भी लालायित रहते हैं एवं तदनुकूल उपाय के सन्धान की चेष्टा करते रहते हैं । तो कुछ और चिन्तापरायण मनीषी मन में इस प्रकार सोचते पाये जाते है – “सुख के होने पर उसके अटूट सहचर या अनुचर के रूप में दुःख की भी विद्यमानता है क्योकि इस संसार में इस प्रकार की अवस्था ही प्रायः देखी जाती है ।” – इसी कारण से वे लोग सुख दे उद्भावन के निमित्त चेष्टा न करते हुये आत्यन्तिकी दुःखनिवृत्ति के उपाय के ही सन्धान में ही व्यस्त रहते है । और कुछ इस प्रकार के लोग भी है जो यह सोचते हैं कि – “जिस प्रकार से सूर्य के उदित होने से अन्धकार स्वतः विदूरित हो जाता है, उसी प्रकार वास्तविक सुख के उदय से दुःख भी अपने आप ही विदूरित हो जाएगा ।” और इसी कारण से वे लोग वास्तवसुखप्राप्ति के उपाय के ही अनुसन्धान में लग रहते हैं ।

 

ये तो हुआ सुख-दुःख का वर्णन । इसके साथ विवेचन का एक और विषय है और वह है कि सुख एवं दु:ख का भोग कौन करता है? सुखलाभ के एवं दुःखनिवृत्ति के लिये कौन लालायित रहता है? यदि कहा जाये कि – “क्यो? ‘हम’! ‘हम’ ही तो सुख-दुःख का भोग करते है एवं सुखप्राप्ति तथा दुःखनिवृत्ति के लिये लालायित रहते हैं ।” पर अब प्रश्न उठता है कि यह ‘हम’ कौन है? सुख-दुःख का भोग तो केवल देह (शरीर) करता है । तो क्या ‘हम’ केवल देह है? या देह से अलग कुछ और? इस विषय पर सकल मनीषी एकमत का पोषण नहीं करते । कुछ बोलते हैं कि – “ये देह ही ‘हम’ हैं । देह के अतिरिक्त और कुछ भी नही है ।” तो कुछ और कहते हैं कि – “ना, यह देह ‘हम’ नही हैं । ‘हम’ तो देह के अलावा कोई और वस्तु हैं, क्योकि देह के विनष्ट होने पर भी ‘हम’ तो रहते ही हैं ।”  — इस प्रकार विभिन्न चिन्ताधाराओं के कारण विभिन्न दार्शनिक मतवाद का उद्भव हुआ है ।

 

सुखलाभ के एवं दुःखनिवृत्ति के उपाय का अनुसन्धान से ही विभिन्न दार्शनिक मतवाद के उद्भव का हेतु है और इसी के प्रसङ्गक्रम से स्वाभाविकरूपेण दार्शनिक मनीषीगण अनान्य अनेक तत्त्वो की आलोचना में प्रवृत्त हुये हैं – जिस प्रकार सुख क्या है, दुःख क्या है, जीव क्या है, जगत् क्या है, जगत् के कोई सृष्टि, स्थिति (पालन) एवं संहृति (संहार) कर्त्ता भी कोई है या नही, और यदि वे है तो वे कौन है, जीव की मृत्यु क्या वस्तु है, और मृत्यु के पश्चात् जीव रहता है या नही – इत्यादि । अतएव इस स्थल में सङ्क्षेप में कुछ प्रमुख दार्शनिक मतो की विश्लेषणा करेङ्गे ।

 

क्रमश:

 

  • भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वर आचार्य श्री रा.कृ.दा.स्वा. ‘आ.वा.’ गुरुपाद

 

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Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Theology & Its Triumph – Pt. 1

The derivation of various doctrinal concepts.

 

 

Within the mundane creation, all aspire after delight. Whole endeavour is targeted for the sake of glee only (i.e. ātyantika-sukha-prāpti’).  As a consequence of such exertion and after much period, an object of cerebral joy is obtained. Misapprehending such an attainment as factual pleasure, the constrained entity attempts to relish it.

 

Asserting the hankering for acquisition of rapture, no one pursues its contrary aspect of anguish. No venture for the acquirement of woes is ever displayed by anyone. On the contrary, all effort is seen aiming at the negation of the possibility of attaining afflictions (i.e. ātyantika-dukha-nivtti’).

 

Hailing from the preceptorial line of Śrīmatī Viṣṇupriyādevī’s kins, the ditto has been corroborated by Śrī Gaurakiśora Gosvāmī Vedāntatīrtha in the introductory portion of his Svara-latā Commentary on Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmīpāda’s Śrī Tattva-sandarbha as follows –

 

“sarva-puruṣāṇāṁ nisargata eva tat-prāpti-parihārayo iṣṭatvāt; dṛṣyate hi khalu sukha-dukha-prāpti-parihārayo loka-pravtti. ‘sukha me syāt; dukha mā abhūt iti’ svabhāvata sarveṣāṁ puruṣāṇāṁ anavacchinna-sukhādi-mātre abhilāṣopalambhāt.”

 

Nonetheless, asserting the imposed aggrieved condition, one feels compelled to experience the same. But the suffering of agony is executed without any yearning for it, as if the distress itself propels an entity for its relish. Perpetual emancipation from the clutches of grief alongside the procurement of uncontaminated exultation is sought by all. As to how such a phase can be mountable, various theorists have contemplated for its concrete solution. And the philosophical literary canon emanates as an outcome of such scrutiny.

 

Diverse contemplators have pondered for this solution with mutually varied intellectual dispositions. For the same reason, variety is perceptible in their philosophical reckonings.

 

Amidst them, some exclusively long for the phenomenal ecstasy. Their efforts stay focused on the invention of the techniques apposite to their goal. Ultimate eradication of the miseries’ cause finds no precedence in their attempts. Their labour finds culmination observing the driftwood of sorrow flung by the inundation of gladness.

 

Several other crave for the entire retirement of suffering, in conjunction with the attainment of everlasting bliss. Consequently, they endeavour for a means to its solution.

 

Few others ponder over as such – “As a concomitant factor of joy, despair will follow as an attendant or servitor, as evident from our frequent practical testimony in this world.” Hence, they do not strive for the attainment of happiness and rather, engage in seeking the solution for the final extinction of melancholy.

 

Still, few more reason as such – “Analogous to the dissipation of oblivion at the very outset of dawn, the spontaneous exile of miseries also goes parallel with the rise of perpetual gayness.” Thus, they only target the awakening of factual eternal pleasure.

 

Thus consummates the analysis on the matter of grief and delight. But, along with it, there remains another issue to be scrutinized.  Who does relish the pain and pleasure, in actual? Which entity aspires after the achievement of rejoice and abandoning of agony? If replied – “Why? It is none other than myself! I feel and undergo the duality of pain and pleasure while concurrently yearning for their elimination cum acquirement.” Later, another linked query arises as to – “Who is this ‘I’ or ‘me’? Since, happiness and distress are felt by the body, am I merely this body? Or some item distinct from it?” But, in this regard, not all entertain such an opinion. Some proclaim – “I am this grossly perceptible body and nothing else besides it.” Few more still opine as follows – “No! I am not this body. Rather, I am an entity wholly segregate from this visible body. Because, despite the destruction of this body, both I and the sense of I exist.”

 

In this way, as a consequence of multifarious imagination, the growth of various theologies has occurred.

 

The same is substantiated by Gauḍīya Vedāntācārya Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa in Śrī Siddhānta-ratnam alias Śrī Govinda-bhāṣya-pīṭhakam (SR 1.5) as follows –

 

“iha hi sukha-dūḥkha-prāpti-parihārayo loka-pravtti dṛśyate……ata sārāsāra-vicārajñāḥ maharaya tatra upāya prakīrtayanti.”

 

Śrīla Vidyābhūṣaṇapāda reiterates in the Tippaṇī on SR 1.5 as follows –

 

“lokānāṁ sukha-prāptau dukha-parihāre ca pravtti asti. kintu te tatra upāya na jānanti; teṣāṁ tat-siddhaye maharaya ta vadanti ity artha.”

 

The same has been confirmed by Śrīla Abhayacaraṇāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmī Prabhupāda as follows –

 

(i). SB 1.3.13’s BV Purport –

 

“Every living being is searching after happiness, but no one knows where eternal and unlimited happiness is obtainable.”

 

(ii). SB 7.6.3’s BV Purport – “In the material world in any form of life there is some so-called happiness and so-called distress. No one invites distress in order to suffer, but still it comes. ……..We cannot avoid such happiness and distress under any circumstances. ”

 

(iii). ACBSP’s Lecture on SB 1.1.3 – London, Aug. 19th, 1971 AD:

 

“Everyone is trying to get out of the painful situation. That is struggle for existence. But they do not know what is the ultimate life, free from all painful activities. That is called liberation. The whole Vedic civilization is based on this point, how to get liberated and enjoy eternal happiness.”

 

(iv). ACBSP’s Lecture on SB 5.5.1 – Tittenhurst, London, Sep. 12th 1969 AD:

 

“And one may question, “What is that?” Brahma-saukhyam anantam. You are hankering after happiness, pleasure. So when your existential condition will be purified and you will be placed in the transcendental platform, at that time you will enjoy eternal happiness. You are all… After all, you are after happiness. Why you are struggling so much hard in this material existence? For happiness. Why you are after sense gratification? For happiness. Why you want to possess? For happiness. Why you want to become beautiful? For happiness. Why you want to eat so many things? For happiness. You go on. The happiness, your ultimate goal. But the happiness which you are now deriving from the sources you have manufactured, that is temporary. If you want to become happy by intoxication, for how long? That is temporary. Any way. If you want to be happy by sex indulgence, for how long? That is also for a few minutes, few seconds. But if you want eternal, continued happiness, then you have to purify your existential condition, you have to place yourself in the transcendental position, and you will feel that happiness.”

 

Deliberating on the remedy of bliss’s gain and the expulsion of affliction, all philosophies arose; and dealing in the same context, theologians have vastly analysed all other pertaining aspects, such as, (i) joy, (ii) sorrow, (iii) living spirit, (iv) the manifest phenomena, (v) whether there is existent the generator, maintainer, and annihilator of it, (vi) if existent, its identity, (vii) the death of the embodied spirit, & (viii) whether the living spirit ceases to exist following the death or not etc.

 

Śrī Ādya-śāṅkarācārya also confirms this approach in Verses 11-13 of his Aparokṣānubhūti.

 

Now, many such oriental philosophies shall be examined in synopsis.

 

 

Contd.

— Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādḥīśvara Ācārya Śrī Gurupāda

Link / सूत्र — https://goo.gl/YJd6iW

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