क्रमागतो वेदान्तसन्देशः – १-५ / क्रमागत वेदान्तसन्देश – १-५ / Serialized Vedāntic Message – 1-5

 

उपोद्घातम् प्रमेयरत्नावल्या: / भूमिका प्रमेय रत्नावली की / Introduction to Prameya-ratnāvalī

 

 

उपोद्घातम्

 

प्रमेयरत्नावल्या: कर्त्तार: श्रीमद्बलदेवविद्याभूषणपादा: ग्रन्थेऽस्मिन् श्रीमदानन्दतीर्थपूर्णप्रज्ञमध्वाचार्यपादान् गौडेश्वरवैष्णवसम्प्रदायेन स्वीकृतोऽचिन्त्यभेदाभेदवादस्यास्फुटध्वनिप्रवर्त्तकाचार्यरूपेण प्रस्थापयित्वा तैः स्वीकृतानि नवप्रेमेयानि प्रकाशितवन्त:। अस्यैव प्रकरणग्रन्थस्य वर्त्तते प्रयोजनं यद्ब्रह्मसूत्राणां गोविन्दभाष्यस्थानां प्रमेयसमूहानां परिचयदानमिति । बहुचर्चितानि माध्वप्रमेयान्येतानि – (१) श्रीविष्णुः परतमः (२) अखिलाम्नायैकवेद्यो (३) जगत्सत्यम् वस्तुतो (४) जीवेश्वरयोः पारमार्थिको भेदः (५) जीवाः नित्यहरेरनुचरा: (६) साधनजन्यफलेन जीवेषु तारतम्यम् (७) श्रीमुकुन्दपादपद्मप्राप्तिः मोक्षैव (८) मोक्षप्रदाता सर्वेषां विष्णुरेव न संशयः (९) प्रत्यक्षानुमानशब्देति प्रमाणत्रयमिति । अस्मिन्ग्रन्थस्याध्यायनवके नवप्रमेयानि व्याख्यातानि ।

 

अथ प्रथमं प्रमेयम् –

 

श्रीकृष्णो परतमः सर्वहेतुः विभुचैतन्य: सर्वज्ञ आनन्दी प्रभुः सुहृत् ज्ञानद: मोक्षप्रदः माधुर्यपूर्ण एव । परब्रह्मणि श्रौतस्मार्तादिशास्त्रैः तारतम्यमपि सुष्ठुरूपेण निष्पादितम् विना स्वगतभेदस्यावकाश: । श्रीभगवति विभुत्वादिधर्मरूपभेदभानं विशेषपदार्थेन सम्भावितम् । तत्र ब्रह्मणि विशेषेण केवल: भेदप्रतीति: वस्तुतः भेदो नास्ति ।

 

भेदो पञ्चविधः यथा – (१) ईश्वरजीवानां भेदः (२) जीवजीवानां भेदः (३) जडजडानां भेदः (४) जडजीवानां भेदः (५) जडेश्वराणां भेद इति । एष: पञ्चविधभेदोऽपि परब्रह्मणि सजातीयविजातीयरूपद्वैतं न प्रसूयते जगज्जीवानां ब्रह्मणः शक्तिपरिणामरूपत्वात् तद्ब्रह्मणः सनातनविभिन्नांशरूपत्वाच्च शास्त्रप्रमाणैः ।

 

भगवत्या लक्ष्म्या नित्याराधितो श्रीभगवान् । परब्रह्मणः पराशक्त्यैव लक्ष्मीः। तस्यापरा तटस्थाख्या सनातनविभिन्नांशजीवभूता क्षेत्रज्ञाशक्तिः । तृतीया भगवत्स्वरूपबहिरङ्गा त्रिगुणात्मिका मायाशक्तिः । अन्तरङ्गा पराशक्तिः ब्रह्मस्वरूपभूता विष्ण्वाभिन्नेति । तस्याः ब्रह्मात्मभूतायाः शक्तेः त्रीणि रूपाणि ह्लादिनीसन्धिनीसंविदिति ।

 

श्रीलक्ष्मीविष्ण्वो: अवतारनिकरे तुल्यपूर्तेः विद्यमानताऽपि तेषु विविधेषु भगवत्स्वरूपेषु गुणप्रकटनतारतम्येन स्वांशांशीभावो व्यवहृतः । भगवत्स्वरूपधामपार्षदानामानन्त्येन तल्लीलाया आनन्त्यमपि स्वीकृतम् ।

 

(क्रमशः)

 

 

भूमिका

 

प्रमेयरत्नावली नामक इस ग्रन्थ के रचयिता श्रीबलदेवविद्याभूषणपाद ने श्रीमदानन्दतीर्थपूर्णप्रज्ञमध्वाचार्यपाद को गौडीय वैष्णव सम्प्रदाय के द्वारा स्वीकृत अचिन्त्यभेदाभेदवाद की अस्फुट ध्वनि (ढाँचे के) के प्रवर्त्तक के रूप में स्थापित करते हुए उनके (मध्वाचार्य के) द्वारा स्वीकृत नवप्रमेयों का प्रकाश किया है । इस प्रकरणग्रन्थ का प्रयोजन ब्रह्मसूत्रों के गोविन्दभाष्य में आये हुए प्रमेयों (सिद्धान्तों) का परिचय प्रदान करना है । वे नौ माध्व प्रमेय इस प्रकार है – (१) श्रीविष्णु ही परतम है, (२) वे सर्ववेदवेद्य है, (३) परिदृश्यमान् जगत् वस्तुतः सत्य है, (४) जीव (ब्रह्म) तथा ईश्वर (परब्रह्म) में पारमार्थिक भेद है, (५) जीव समूह नित्य भगवद्दास है, (६) साधनजन्य फल से जीवों में परस्पर उच्च/नीच का तारतम्य होता है, (७) श्रीहरि के चरणकमलों की प्राप्ति ही मोक्ष है, (८) श्रीहरि का भजन ही एकमात्र कारण है मुक्तिप्राप्ति का तथा (९) प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान तथा शब्द – ये तीन प्रमाण है । इस ग्रन्थ में नौ अध्याय है जिनके प्रत्येक अध्याय में एक एक प्रमेय की विवेचना हुयी है ।

 

प्रथम प्रमेय –

 

श्रीकृष्ण ही सर्वोत्कृष्ट, सर्वहेतु, विभुचैतन्य, सर्वज्ञ, आनन्दी, प्रभु, सुहृद्, ज्ञानदाता, मोक्षदाता, व माधुर्यपूर्ण है । श्रुतिस्मृत्यादिशास्त्रों के आधार पर ही परब्रह्म में तारतम्य दृष्टिगोचर होता है, लेकिन ऐसा होने पर भी इसका सङ्केत ब्रह्मवस्तु में ‘स्वगतभेद’ (एक ही पदार्थ के भीतर आन्तरिक भेद) की ओर कदापि नही । श्रीभगवान् में विभुत्वादिधर्मरूप भेद की प्रतीति (जैसे कि उनमें ज्ञान, आनन्द आदि विभिन्न गुणों का होना, उन गुणों का आपस में अन्तर तथा उनक गुणों का जो उन परब्रह्म के साथ धारक/धारित या धर्त्ता /धृत या गुण/गुणी या धर्म/धर्मी या विशेषण/विशेष्य या लक्षण/लक्ष्य का जो भेदसूचक सम्बन्ध है) ‘विशेष’ पदार्थ के द्वारा सम्भाविता होती है । वहाँ ब्रह्म में केवल भेद की प्रतीति है, वास्तविक भेद नही ।

 

वास्तविक भेद पाँच प्रकार का है – (१) ईश्वर तथा जीवों के मध्य, (२) जीव तथा जीव के मध्य, (३) जड तथा जड के मध्य, (४) जड तथा जीव के मध्य व (५) जड तथा ईश्वर के मध्य व्याप्त । पर ऐसा पञ्चविध भेद भी ब्रह्मतत्त्व में ‘विजातीय’ तथा ‘सजातीय’ भेद को जन्म नही देता क्योंकि जीव तथा जगत् अन्ततोगत्त्वा परब्रह्म के ही अंशस्वरूप तथा शक्तिपरिणामस्वरूप सिद्ध होते है शास्त्रवाक्यों के आधार पर ।

 

भगवती लक्ष्मी के द्वारा श्रीभगवान् नित्य आराधित होतें हैं । परब्रह्म की पराशक्ति ही लक्ष्मी है । उनकी तटस्थ नामक जो अपरा शक्ति है, वह ब्रह्म के सनातन विभिन्नांशस्वरूप जीवों की आश्रयभूता है तथा क्षेत्रज्ञ नाम वाली है । तीसरी शक्ति है त्रिगुणात्मिका माया जो के भगवान् के स्वरूप के पूर्णतः बाहर है, अतः बहिरङ्गा कहलाती है । ब्रह्म की पराशक्ति उनकी स्वरूपभूता/आत्मभूता होने के कारण अन्तरङ्गा है तथा विष्णु से सर्वथा (आत्यन्तिक दृष्टि में) अभिन्न है । उस ब्रह्मात्मभूता शक्ति के तीन रूप है (क) ह्लादिनी (आनन्दमयी), (ख) सन्धिनी (नित्यसत्तामयी) व (ग) संवित् (ज्ञानमयी) ।

 

श्रीलक्ष्मी तथा विष्णु की विविध अवतारसमूह में ‘तुल्यपूर्त्ति’ (सभी भगवत्स्वरूपों में एक समान ही पूर्णता का होना) की विद्यमानता होने पर भी उन विविध भगवत्स्वरूपों में भगवत्स्वरूपभूत दैवी गुणों के प्राकट्य के तारतम्य से उनमें परस्पर स्वांश तथा अंशी का भाव रखा  जाता है (जैसे के श्रीनन्दनन्दन कृष्ण अंशी है सकल नृसिंह, राम, वराहादि अन्य भगवत्स्वरूपों के) । भगवत्स्वरूप, तद्धाम, तत्पार्षद आदियों की अनन्तता के कारण भगवल्लीला का भी आनन्त्य स्वीकृत होता है (क्योंकि लीला भगवत्स्वरूप, धाम, तथा पार्षद आदियों के सम्मिलन से ही तो घटित होती है ।)

 

(क्रमशः)

 

 

Introduction

 

In the current treatise known as Prameya-ratnāvalī, its author Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇapāda has established Śrīmad Ānandatīrtha Pūrṇaprajña Madhvācārya as the philosophical founder of the structure meant for developing the doctrine of Acintya-bhedābheda-vāda (the theory of simultaneously inconceivable identity/oneness and distinction between the God, souls and the world) accepted by the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Sampradāya. Thus, the nine-fold theological conclusions accepted by Madhvācārya have been elaborated upon by Śrīla Vidyābhūṣaṇapāda. The aim of this treatise is to introduce, in synopsis, the principal tenets commented upon in the celebrated Govinda-bhāṣyam on Brahma-sūtras. Such nine-fold conclusions are as under – 1) Śrī Viṣṇu is the foremost deity, 2) He, alone, is denoted by all the Vedas, 3) the phenomenal world is factual and not unreal – in the most ultimate sense, 4) ultimately factual difference between the soul (brahma) and God (para-brahma), 5) spirit souls (jīvas) are, eternally, the distinct expansions (vibhinnāṁśa) of God and thus His servants, 6) produced as the effects of undergoing various sādhanas, hierarchical gradation is found among the jīvas, 7) the obtainment of the lotus-like feet of Śrī Hari is moka or liberation, 8) the devotion to Śrī Hari is the sole cause of such emancipation & 9) direct sensually perceptive testimony, intellectual inference and the Vedic sound – constitute the triple evidence. Each devoted to elucidate a specific topic (among the nine-fold subjects), there are nine chapters in this book.

 

First theological conclusion –

 

Solely, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is par-excellent, the cause of all existence, all pervading sentience, omniscient, bliss personified, master, well-wisher, provider of knowledge cum liberation and replete with all divine sweetness. Illustrated by scriptures such as śrutis and smtis, internally present and innately hierarchical gradation within the personality of Absolute is perceived. This does not, however, tantamount to ‘svagata-bheda’ or the internal ‘self-difference’ within an object e.g. para-brahma. Within the identity of God, the perception of distinction as created by the characteristics of Absolute (which indicates the presence of divine attributes like knowledge, bliss etc. and the mutual difference these qualities have between them and the distinction they hold with their holder i.e. the Absolute; that is to say, the difference between the quality and the qualified) such as His omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence etc. is only possible due to the existence of the element ‘viśea’ or ‘peculiarity’. In this context, there is only seen a semblance of distinction existing between these divine qualities and the God; in actuality, there is no ontological distinction between the two.

 

The factual difference is of five types – 1) between the God and the souls, 2) between one soul and the other, 3) between one insentient matter and the other, 4) between an insentient matter and a sentient soul & 5) between an insentient matter and God. But, even such a five-fold distinction does not beget the ‘intra-difference’ and the ‘inter-difference’ {Sajātīya-bheda or the intra-difference in the same class of objects. The two are same but different. Same, as both are jasmine plants and different as they are physically apart. Also, the difference between an apple tree, and a mango tree. Both are trees, but different types of trees. Vijātīya-bheda or the inter-difference in class groupings. There is a pillar. It is different from the jasmine plant in the group itself. Also, the difference between a mountain and a tree. Svagata-bheda or self-difference is the difference within the attributes of the same class object. Within the jasmine plant, we find leaves and flowers. These constitute svagata-bheda.} within the Absolute Brahma principle, because the jīvas are none, but, the separate expansions of the marginal ketrajñā potency and the phenomenal world is the effect of the external māyā energy of the potent principle para-brahma as propounded by numerous scriptural assertions. Hence, though, energies like jīva-śakti and māyāśakti are separate from the svarūpa/identity of God, nevertheless, as potencies, they are not wholly different from their potent principle brahma/Absolute. Ultimately, brahma stands ‘advitīya’ or one without a second even after accepting fundamental dvaita between brahma, jīva and jagat. Such is the concept of Acintya-bheda-abheda-vāda. Hence, ultimately, all three distinctions (svagata, vijātīya and sajātīya) are inapplicable to brahma as those which seem vijātīya (inert matter) and sajātīya (jīvas) – are none, but the ontologically separate cum existentially dependent energies of the energetic. The self-difference or svagata-bheda as apparently seen between the various bhagavat-svarūpas and between the innately divine qualities of Bhagavān and Bhagavān Himself is, factually, inapplicable in Absolute because of the principle of viśea. Viśea is applied when there is no fundamental/ontological difference between the two objects; but at the same time, the two objects seem different from each other just like the ocean and its waves.

 

Godhead Śrī Hari is, eternally, served by Goddess Lakṣmī in the divine abode. The topmost energy of God is Lakṣmī. His inferior marginal energy known as kretrajña is the source shelter of all the individual jīvas who are the eternally separate aṁśas of God. The third energy is the māyā permeated with the three modes or guas like sato, rajo and tamo. She is situated wholly exterior to the God’s svarūpa and for that reason, she comes about to be known as ‘bahiragā’. She is none, but, the shadow of the svarūpabhūtā antaragā śakti. The most superior antaragā śakti is innate to God’s identity and is ultimately non-different from Him in ontological terms. That internal potency is displayed in triple phase viz., a) hlādinī (felicitous), b) sandhinī (existential) and c) samvit (cognitive).

 

Despite the presence of ‘tulya-pūrtti’ (the same completeness in all the Godly forms) in the various forms of Lakṣmī and Hari, the concept of the internally hierarchical gradation based on the amount of the display of divine qualities by each bhagavat-svarūpa (Godly form) decides the relationship of ‘svāṁśa’ (non-separate expansion – unlike the jīvas who are separate expansions) and ‘aṁśī’ (root source of the non-separate or svāṁśa, as well as, the separate expansions or vibhinnāṁśa). Just as Nandanandana Kṛṣna is considered as the aṁśī of all other bhagavat-svarūpas like Rāma, Nṛsimha, Nārāyaṇa etc. God’s own self, His abode, His eternal associates etc. are all unlimited and imperishably perennial or ananta. Due to such an unlimited stature of God’s self, abode, associates etc., the divine pastimes of God (līlās) are, also, of the same unlimited calibre for līlās constitute of all the three viz., bhagavat-svarūpa, tad-dhāma and tat-pārada.

 

(Contd.)

 

  • भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वराः आचार्यश्रीः गुरुपादाः / भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वर आचार्य श्री गुरुपाद / Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādhīśvara Ācārya Śrī Gurupāda

 

सूत्रम् / सूत्र / Link — https://goo.gl/b81NEQ

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