Sakīrttanam of 33 types (unprecedented innovative analysis; not copycat erudition) – Only English version.




1) If sakīrttanam is executed to fulfill mundane desires of obtaining wealth, women, disciples and fame etc., it is considered part of karma-miśrā bhakti


2) Miśrā bhaktis have not been considered in the āropa-siddhā or even saga-siddhā categories. They constitute a separate category in itself.


3) If it (sakīrttanam) is performed for obtaining liberation or moka, it becomes a limb of āna-miśrā bhakti.


4) If it is accomplished for achieving mystical perfection like aṇimā, mahimā (siddhis) etc., its seen as part of sakāma-atāṅga-yoga-miśrā bhakti.


5) If its is executed for gaining the paramātma-sāyujya mukti (a special type of liberation characterized by merging into the paramātmā feature of Absolute), it is considered as a limb ofmokakāma-atāṅga-yoga-miśrā bhakti.


6) If it’s done solely for the pleasure of Śrī Bhagavān, but, without having yet ascended the platforms of bhāva/rati or prema/prīti, its considered part of sādhana bhakti (initial stage ofsvarūpa-siddhā bhakti).


7) If it’s done for obtaining bhāva or prema, it’s considered part of sādhyā bhakti (final stage ofsvarūpa-siddhā bhakti).


8) If it’s done along with the existence of the desire to continue hosting aparādhas or offenses on the path of bhakti as proclaimed by scriptures like Padmapurāṇa etc., its considered part of nāma-aparadha or bhakti-aparādha.


9) If it’s performed by not considering the scriptural regulations and prohibitions, it’s considered part of ‘utpāta‘ or disturbance as indicated by the famous Brahma-yāmala-tantramverse also, seen cited in Śrī Bhaktirasāmṛtasindhu by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmipāda — ‘श्रुतिस्मृति…उत्पातायैव कल्पते”.


10) If miśrā bhaktis are performed without executing bhakti-aparādhas mentioned in scriptures and by following scriptural rules, the sakīrttanam performed in such miśrā bhaktis is considered on the plane of bhakti-ābhāsa/raty-ābhāsa.


11) If sakīrttanam is performed by harbouring the philosophical conclusions against pure Vaiṣṇava philosophies (like Māyāvāda, Sahajiyāism, Ritkvisim, concept of varṇāśrama not in alignment with the traditional mainstream concept etc.), it’s considered part of vikṛṭā bhakti or perverted devotion.


12) The bhakti-ābhāsa (semblance) stage has, again, been divided twofold viz., chāyā (shadow) and pratibimba (reflection).


13) The sakīrttanam of the names of Buddha etc. performed by Buddhists, Jains etc. is considered part of avaidika-bhāratīya-panthas.


14) The sakīrttanam or congregational roaring of the names of Allah, Jehovah etc. done by the followers of Abrahamic middle-eastern faiths (Christians, Jews and Muslims) is considered part of mleccha-dharma.


15) The sakīrttanam of the names of Śiva done by avaidika or non-Vedic Shaivaites like the followers of Nātha Sampradāya (अलख निरञ्जन वाले कानफटा साधू) of Northern Bhārata and the Lingāyatas / Vīraśaivas of Southern Bhārata — is, too, part of the non-Vedic śiva-bhakti. The classical texts of both, the Nātha Sampradāyins and the Lingāyatas or Vīraśaivas, clearly disregard the authority of Vedas and the traditional concept of varṇāśrama. Thesakīrttanam (recitation of God’s names in loud manner — whether in Veda recitation or duringyajña/sacrifice) done by Ārya-samājīs and other heretics falls in this category, too.


16) The sakīrttanam of Śrī Hari performed by vaiṣṇava/semi-vaiṣṇava turned Nātha Sampradāyins viz., the Vārakarī sect of Saints Jñāneśavara, Ekanātha, Tukārāma etc. in medieval Maharashtra — is considered in a ‘jaṭīla‘ or complicated category. The sakīrttanamperformed by certain unauthorized vaiṣṇava-rasika sects in Vrajamaṇḍala, do also, fall in this category.


17) The sakīrttanam  of Hari performed by not following any particular traditional branch (sampradāya) of Sanātanadharma is considered in the ‘svecchāchārī ucchṛṅkhala nirdalīya‘ or whimsically independent haphazard category.


18) The sakīrttanam  performed of devatās and devīs or demigods/demigoddesses, pits or forefathers, ghostly spirits etc. other than Śrī Hari is considered to be in the ‘anyadevatopāsanā‘, ‘pityupāsanā‘ and ‘bhūtapretopāsanā‘ categories.


19) The sakīrttanam (loud recitation) of the names of andha-tāmasika tāntrika devīs/devatās/gaas like Kāla-bhairava, Bhadrakālī, Cāmuṇḍā, Karṇa-piśācinī etc. performed by following the pentagonal principle of māṁsa (meat), mudrā (gold), madirā (wine),matsya (fish) and maithuna (sex) is considered to be part of vāma-mārga or the leftist unrighteous path of Kāpālikas, Bhairavas, Aghorīs etc.


20) The sakīrttanam of the names of Śrī Hari’s siddha-bhaktas (perfect devotees) and of Śrī Guru of a bona fide Vaiṣṇava Sampradāya — is considered part of the ‘bhagavadīya/tadīya-samarcanam‘ sub-category of śuddhā bhakti.


21) The  sakīrttanam of Hari done by the ārttajijñāsu and arthārthī categories (doing hari-bhakti) is considered to be in the sakāma/sarvakāma/kāmya or karma-miśrā bhakti category enumerated earlier.


22) The sakīrttanam  of Hari done by the fourth ānī category (among the four virtuous orsuktivān) is part of āna-miśrā or moka-kāma category enumerated earlier.


23) The sakīrttanam of Hari done by those following the path of nikāma-bhagavadarpita karma-yoga is part of āropa-siddhā bhakti and is considered as saguṇā laukika-sāttvikī bhakti by Kapildeva in Śrīmad-bhāgavatam.


24) The sakīrttanam of Hari done by a sakāmī or sarvakāmīi (fruitive or motivated actor) or akarma-miśra bhakta is considered to be on the plane of laukika-rajogua or saguṇā rājasikī bhakti.


25) The śuddhā bhakti/uttamā bhakti/kevalā bhakti/ananyā aikāntikī avyabhicāriṇī niścalā ahaitukī apratihatā parā nirguṇā pārmārthikī (not laukikī and not affiliated three mundane modes of guasbhakti is the one which is divided into the stages of sādhana, bhāva/rati and premaSakīrttanam of Hari done in such bhakti is considered part of theakāma/niśkāma category.


26) Sakīrttanam of Hari performed for the destruction and harm of other beings is considered to be on the plane of laukika tamogua (saguṇā tāmasikī bhakti).


27) Sakīrttanam of Hari accidentally performed without having any knowledge regarding the principles of bhakti and Bhagavān — is considered part of ‘ajñāta-bhakti-janaka-sukti‘.


28) Sakīrttanam of Hari performed by demoniac envious asuras like Kaṁsa etc. with malicious intentions towards Bhagavān is considered part of ‘prātikūlya-bhāva‘ or the unfavourable disposition. Śuddhā bhakti is ‘ānukūlya-bhāva‘ or the favourable dispotition.


29) Sakīrttanam of Hari performed in the very end by the Brahmā typed priest of Vaidikadravya-yajñas or fire-sacrifices (‘mantrahīna kriyāhīna…’) so that any fault incurred duringyajña be subdued — is purely part of karmakāṇḍ(pravāha-mārga), not even karma-miśṛā bhakti.


30) Even in the śuddhā bhakti category, depending on the vidhi-mārga (maryādā-mārga) and rāga-mārga (puti-mārga) , the Hari-saṅkīrttanam is divided according to whether is permeated with aiśvarya-bodhaka-nāmamādhūrya-bodhaka-nāma or sāmānya-nāma. The various combinations of rāga and vidhi are mainly four — a) aiśvarya-miśritā mādhuryopāsanā, b)śuddha-aiśvaropāsanā, c) mādhurya-miśrita-aiśvaryopāsanā and d) viśuddha-mādhuryopāsanā.


31) Sometimes, Hari-saṇkīrttanam is intended towards obtainingsukhaiśvaryottarā/premasevottarā muktis. Sometimes, seen on the level of sarva-dharma-tyāga(stage on the outskirts of śuddhā bhakti path), also!


32) The Hari-saṅkīrttanam performed by the bhaktas of saniṣṭha, parinisha and nirapekadivisions, or kaniṣṭha/prākta, madhyama and uttama ‘bhāgavata‘ categories, or kaniṣṭha, madhyama and uttama ‘adhikārī‘ categories, or vaiṣṇava, vaiṣṇavatara andvaiṣṇavatama categories can be seen, too.


33) The Hari-saṅkīrttanam executed solely for obtaining citta-śuddhi is, again, deemed as part of nikāma-karmayoga intended for awakening brahma-jñānam.


Note —


The Hari-saṅkīrttanam done on the basis of the scriptures of Sanātanadharma may be paurāṇika/pañcama-vaidika, catu-vaidika (nigama/śrauta), smārtta or pāñcarātrika (āgama)


The miśṛā bhaktis are, also, known as ‘pradhānībhūtā‘ bhaktis as opposed to the kevalā or śuddhā bhakti.


Background knowledge of the fundamental philosophy of Caitanyaite Vaiṣṇavism is needed to understand these technical aspects.

Gaudiya Vaiṣṇavism is structured on a profound analysis of categories, sub-categorizations and hierarchical gradations cum specifications on every theological issue. Why? Because, it’s theological founders viz., Caitanyadeva and Six Gosvāmīs etc. were hailing from Navadvīpa and other surrounding areas of Bengal which used to be considered as the historical seat of the learning of navya-nyāya-darśanam or the oriental art of dialectical logic. And Naiyāyikas are known for their sharp acumen and ability to analyze the subtlest aspects of any matter on hand.


Conclusion –


The process of Hari-saṅkīrttanam as executed in the rāga-marga (Vraja-rasopāsanā) is to be practiced by those of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas in whom rāga has been manifest. Others, can perform sakīrttanam by traversing vidhi-mārga, too.



Link — https://goo.gl/w7nOyL


— Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādhīśvara Ācārya Śrī RKDS ‘ĀV’ Gurupāda

(Anand, Gujarat, India/Bhārata)

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