Srila Rupa Kavisvara Gosvamipada

पारकीयोज्ज्वलरससम्राज्ञानां अप्राकृतकवितार्किकसिंहानामप्रतिमरूपानुगचूडामणीनां व्रजरसिकराजसभासभाजनभाजनानां भगवद्भक्तिरसप्रस्थानदार्शनिकधुरन्धराणां चैतन्य(राधा+व्रजेन्द्रसुत)चरणचञ्चरीकाग्रग्रण्यश्रीमद्रघुनाथभट्टगोस्वामि(रस मञ्जरी)शिष्यपरिवारान्तर्गतानां  गौडदेशीयश्रीलकृष्णदासकविराजगोस्वामिपाद(कस्तूरिका मञ्जरी)प्रशिष्याणां पञ्चनददेशीयश्रीलमुकुन्ददासगोस्वमि(मोदा मञ्जरी)पादाश्रितानाञ्च बङ्गविप्रकुलसमुद्भूतश्रीलरूपकवीश्वरगोस्वामिपादैः (रत्न मञ्जरी) विरचित: ।

 

उपोद्घातः

वैष्णवशास्त्रेभ्यो विशेषेण तु गौडवैष्णवानां व्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तप्रतिपादकग्रन्थेभ्यः समाकृष्य सङ्गृहीतोऽत्र ग्रन्थकृद्भि: सारः । प्रदर्शितञ्च सप्रमाणं श्रीभगवतो रतिधामलीलादिनां तत्त्वानां सिद्धान्त इत्ययं सारसङ्ग्रहो नूनं श्रीराधागोविन्दपदारविन्दभजनाभीप्सूनां गौडीयवैष्णवतत्त्वपायसबुभुक्षूणां वैष्णवशास्त्रतत्त्वगवेषकाणाञ्च कल्पते भूयसे लाभाय । अस्येह विषयः समासतो दृश्यते ।

 

[विषयसङ्क्षेप:]

 

शान्तदास्यसख्यवात्सल्यमाधुर्यरूपाणां रतीनां चरमोपयोगः श्रीमद्भगवद्भजन एव । तत्र पूर्वपूर्वाभ्यो रतिभ्य उत्तरोत्तरासामुत्कर्ष: । एवञ्च मधुरैव रति: सर्वश्रेष्ठेति वैष्णवशास्त्रमतनिष्कर्ष: । अस्यां माधुर्यरतावन्येषां रतिभावानां सत्यप्यन्तर्भावेऽस्ति कश्चिदस्या भावातिशयो यः खलु कान्ताय स्वदेहार्पणरूपायां प्रेमसेवायामुपयुज्यते । सारसङ्ग्रहकारेणास्या एव मधुराया रतेरुत्कर्षद्योतनाय तदुपजीवकानि धामलीलावतारसाधनान्यनुशीलितानि ।

सैषा मधुरा रतिस्त्रिविधा साधारणी समञ्जसा समर्था चेति । तत्र श्रीकृष्णेन्द्रियसुखतात्पर्यवृत्तिका समर्थैवेतराभ्यामुत्कृष्यते । एनामेव समर्थामधिकृत्यास्मिन्ग्रन्थे श्रीकृष्णप्रेमविषयकं परकीयारतितत्त्वमालोचितम् । चिन्तितञ्च परकीयात्वं बाधकसाधकयुक्तिभि: श्रीकृष्णप्रेयसीनां श्रीव्रजगोपीनाम् । किञ्च ह्लादिनीसारभूता श्रीराधिका सर्वातिशायिनीति प्रतिपादनाय महाभावादितत्त्वस्वरूपमपि प्रदर्शितम् । अत एव प्रथमं प्रकाशनचतुष्टयाख्ये प्रकरणे दुरधिगमं महाभावस्वरूपं निसर्गस्वरूपस्वरूपं समञ्जसासमर्थास्वरूपं कामानुगास्वरूपञ्चेति लक्षणप्रमाणाभ्यां प्रकाशितम् ।

अथ धामलीलागतानां केषाञ्चिदवान्तरभेदानां यत्स्वरूपेणैकत्वं सालक्षण्यं वेति भ्रान्तं मतं तस्य खण्डनेन प्रदर्शितम वैलक्षण्यचतुष्टयम् । तच्च वैलक्षण्यं यथा । समर्थासमञ्जसारतिभेदहेतुकं श्रीव्रजगोलोकयोर्वैलक्षण्यम्  । परकीयारतिततिकात्यायनीव्रतपरकन्यकारतितत्योर्वैलक्षण्यम् । श्रीकृष्णलीलामत्स्यादिलीलयोर्वैलक्षण्यम् । व्रजजनानामनुकारित्वभेदेन साधकरूपतटस्थरूपयोर्वैलक्षण्यञ्च ।

 

(क्रमागतोऽयं लेख: – १)

 

  • भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वरा: आचार्यश्री: गुरुपादा:

 

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श्रीव्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्तसारसङ्ग्रह

 

पारकीयोज्ज्वलरससम्राट अप्राकृतकवितार्किकसिंह अप्रतिमरूपानुगचूडामणि व्रजरसिकराजसभासभाजनभाजन भगवद्भक्तिरसप्रस्थानदार्शनिकधुरन्धर चैतन्य(राधा+व्रजेन्द्रसुत)चरणचञ्चरीकाग्रग्रण्यश्रीमद्रघुनाथभट्टगोस्वामि(रस मञ्जरी)शिष्यपरिवारान्तर्गत गौडदेशीयश्रीलकृष्णदासकविराजगोस्वामिपाद (कस्तूरी मञ्जरी) के प्रशिष्य व पञ्चनददेशीयश्रीलमुकुन्ददासगोस्वामिपाद (मोदा मञ्जरी) के आश्रित बङ्गविप्रकुलसमूद्भूत श्रीलरूपकवीश्वरगोस्वामिपाद (रत्न मञ्जरी) के द्वारा विरचित ।

भूमिका

 

इस ग्रन्थ में ग्रन्थकार महोदय के द्वारा वैष्णवशास्त्रों में से, विशेषतया गौडीयवैष्णवों के व्रजभक्तिरससिद्धान्त के प्रतिपादक ग्रन्थों से सार को समाकर्षित कर प्रस्थापित किया गया है । यहाँ पर सप्रमाण श्रीभगवान् से सम्बन्धित रति (प्रीति), धाम व लीलादि तत्त्वो का सिद्धान्त प्रदर्शित हुआ है । अतएव यह सारसङ्ग्रह निश्चित् ही श्रीराधागोविन्ददेव के पदारविन्दों के भजनपिपासु, गौडीयवैष्णवतत्त्वरूपी पायसम् (खीर) के लिये तर्षित तथा वैष्णवशास्त्रों में निहित तत्त्वों के गवेषकों के लिये अतिलाभकारी है । अत: इस ग्रन्थ के विषय का सङ्क्षेप में अवलोकन किया जाए ।

 

 

[विषय की रूपरेखा]

 

शान्त, दास्य, सख्य, वात्सल्य एवं माधुर्य रूपी रतीयों का चरम उपयोग श्रीभगवान् के भजन में ही है । इनमें भी पूर्ववर्तिनी रतीयों से परवर्त्तिनी रतियों का उत्कर्ष सिद्ध है । वैष्णवशास्त्रमत का निष्कर्ष यह है कि मधुररति ही सर्वश्रेष्ठा है । इस माधुर्यरति में अन्यान्य रतिभावादियों का अन्तर्भाव (विलय) होने के कारण यह मधुररति भावातिशायिनी है जिस कारण से निज प्रियतम की स्वदेहार्पण के द्वारा की गयी प्रेमसेवा में इसकी उपयोगिता है । सारसङ्ग्रहकार के द्वारा इस मधुररति के उत्कर्ष के प्रकाशन के निमित्त इस मधुररति के आश्रित (तदुपजीवी) इन चार तत्त्वों की आलोचना हुयी है – धाम, लीला, अवतार व साधन ।

 

यह मधुरा रति तीन प्रकार की है – साधारणी, समञ्जसा तथा समर्था । इनमें श्रीकृष्ण की इन्द्रियों के सुख में ही जिस की एकमात्र वृत्ति (क्रिया) है वैसी समर्था रति अन्य दो रतियों से उत्कर्ष को प्राप्त है । इस समर्था रति को ही विषय बनाकर इस ग्रन्थ में श्रीकृष्णप्रेमविषयक परकीया रति का तत्त्व आलोचित हुआ है । बाधिका (विरोध करने वाली) एवं साधिका (समर्थन देने वाली) – इन दोनों प्रकार की युक्तियों से श्रीकृष्ण की प्रेयसीयाँ व्रजगोपिकाओं का परकीयापन (किसी और से विवाहित रहना) आलोचित हुआ है । भगवान् की स्वरूपभूता ह्लादिनी शक्ति की सारभूतविग्रहा श्रीमती वार्षभानवी राधिका ही अन्य समस्त व्रजसीमन्तिनीगण (व्रजवधूटी गोपीयो में) में सर्वातिशायिनी है (और सब से बढ कर है) – इस सिद्धान्त के प्रतिपादन के निमित्त महाभावादि तत्त्व के स्वरूप की आलोचना हुई है । अतएव इस ग्रन्थ के सर्व प्रथम प्रकरण ‘प्रकाशनचतुष्टय’ में दुरधिगम (बहुत ही कठिन हो जिसका अवबोधन या ज्ञान) ‘महाभावस्वरूप’, ‘निसर्गस्वरूपस्वरूप’, ‘समञ्जसासमर्थास्वरूप’ तथा ‘कामानुगास्वरूप’ – इन चार ‘स्वरूप’ तत्त्वों (प्रमेयों) का उनके लक्षण (परिभाषा) व प्रमाण (स्रोत) के सहित प्रकाशन हुआ है ।

 

श्रीभगवान् के धाम, लीला आदि तत्त्वों के जो अवान्तर भेद (भीतर की उपश्रेणीयाँ) है – उनके स्वरूपों में सालक्षण्य (पूर्णतया एक समानता) है – इस प्रकार के भ्रान्त मत के खण्डन के लिये ‘वैलक्षण्यचतुष्टय’ (चार प्रकार की असमानता) नामका द्वितीय प्रकरण रखा गया है । वो चतुर्धा वैलक्षण्य इस प्रकार का है – १) समञ्जसा व समर्था रतियों के भेद के कारण व्रज एवं गोलोक के बीच में विलक्षणता (असमानता या वैशिष्ट्यमूलक तारतम्य), २) परकीयाभावमयी (अन्य से विवाहिता) तथा कात्यायनीव्रतपरायणा कन्यकाभावमयी (अविवाहिता) व्रजगोपीयों के बीच में विलक्षणता, ३) श्रीनन्दनदन कृष्ण व मत्स्यादि अन्य भगवत्स्वरूपों के मध्य विलक्षणता तथा ४) व्रजजन के (व्रज के नित्यसिद्ध भगवत्पार्षदो के) अनुकारित्व (अनुसरण) व अननुकारित्व (अननुसरण) के भेद से ‘साधकरूप’ व ‘तटस्थरूप’ का वैलक्षण्य ।

 

(क्रमागत लेख – १)

 

  • भक्तिरसवेदान्तपीठाधीश्वर आचार्य श्री गुरुपाद

 

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Śrī-vraja-bhakti-rasa-siddhānta-sāra-saṅgraha (Essential Collection of the Principles of the Succulent Mellows of Vraja-bhakti)

 

 

Composed by Śrīla Rūpa Kavīśvara Gosvāmipāda (Ratna Mañjarī) hailing from the vipra-kula of Baṅga-deśa – who is, the Emperor of the domain of divinely aesthetical & brilliantly succulent mellow of paramour love, the lion amongst the flock of transcendental logicians and poets, unexcelled crest jewel among the ardent apostles of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmipāda (Rūpa Mañjarī), the dignified candidate of respect allotted by the royal court of the connoiseurs of Vraja-rasa, the paramount champion amongst the theologians of the chemistry of devotional love, a member of the disciplic family of Śrīla Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmipāda (Rasa Mañjarī) – the foremost in the midst of the honeybees sucking the ambrosia emanating from the lotus-like feet of Śrī Caitanyadeva (Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣna united), the grand-disciple of Śrīla Kṛṣnadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmipāda (Kastūrikā Mañjarī) hailing from Gauḍa-deśa and the disciple of Śrīla Mukundadāsa Gosvāmipāda (Modā Mañjarī) of Pañcanada province.

 

Introduction

 

The Vrajabhaktirasasiddhāntasārasāṅgraha, authored by the great-grand disciple of Śrīla Raghunāthabhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, is an eminent classic which seeks to set forth the doctrine of Gauḍīya Vaiṣnavism as a systematized theological school of divine amorous love. It will not be an exaggeration to say that Bengal Vaiṣṇavism, in spite of its wide-spread jurisdiction, is not critically comprehended with all its logical bearings even by the most enthusiastic scholars whose acquaintance with other branches of Indian philosophy and religion is beyond cavil. It is unfortunate that the philosophical substratum of the Vaiṣṇavic culture of Bengal is not properly appreciated owing to the lack of critically edited standard works on the subject dealing with the fundamental categories in a systematic fashion and within a reasonable compass. The present work jubilantly satisfies this desideratum and hence, it must be accorded highest rank in the enumeration of standard text-books on Gauḍīya Vaiṣnava philosophy.

 

The treatise has been e-published for the first time in Roman script accompanied by an English rendition endowed with a penetrating exposition by Caitanya-sampradāyī Advaitācārya-prabhu-daikṣa-paramparāgata Gauḍīya-rāddhānta-pīṭhāḍhīśvara Bhakti-rasa-vedānta-ācārya Mahāmahopādhyāya Śrīmān Rādhākṛṣṇadāsa Svāmī ‘Āmnāya Vācaspati’ Gurupāda hailing from the same theological lineage as the classical author of the book and who is unanimously considered one of the greatest authorities on Gauḍīya Vaiṣnavism at date.

 

We need not peep into the dissertation of the materials which have formed the basis of the present publication, because the learned editor, translator and commentator has very elaborately dealt with all these queries in his Prelude. The book is adorned with an elaborate introductory Prelude in English, in which a critical evaluation of the contents and the historical background, both from the standpoint of textual criticism and chronological setting, have been presented with consummate ability and mastery of data. The illustriously learned editor has spared no pains to make this obviously difficult book intelligible and interesting to an average devotee student and also to an inquisitive layman who wants to have a broad acquaintance with the fundamentals prevailing the mysticism of Caitanyaite Vaisnavism.

 

We are definite that a diligent perusal of this book will disabuse a student of Indian religious thought of the facile misconception that the cult of divine love which forms the staple of the Vaiṣṇava school of Bengal is based upon an emotional and sentimental psychology which cannot stand the scrutiny of logical analysis. The various types of affection for the Divinity have been classified not only with the reference to their psychological characteristics, but have been substantiated by the rational analysis of their philosophical foundation too. The best calibre of love that a spiritual aspirant can entertain for the Lord is embodied in the relation between the two persons of transcendental opposite gender – a man and a woman. Love attains its highest excellence and manifests its supreme sweetness and grace when it occurs between a man and a woman transcendental to the mundane phenomenon. It is more intense and poignant than the love that subsists between two friends or between a parent and a son. In the case of divine love also, it reaches its maximum vigour and climax of perfection when the devotee loves the Divine Being with the ardour and intensity of the love which a woman in love bears to her lover. That devotee is factually paramount and most blessed who relinquishes the pride of mundane masculinity and becomes psychologically and spiritually metamorphosed into a lady in love, but all under the celestial impact of the blissful potency of tat-tat-bhāvecchānugā version of kāmānugā-bhakti. Herein, the beloved is Godhead – the Supreme Lord of all universes. But such an Absolute God as the darling is perceived as shorn of all His majesty and power. He remains nothing but the object of love – a lover and a receiver of love in a human-like countenance.

 

The Lord has many forms; He is the sovereign of the total cosmos. But to the lover, He does not come with the pomp of an autocrat and His power and majesty do not appeal to him. They are irrelevant to love and rather tend to disguise the Eternal Lover in Him. Love is the highest manifestation of the Divine nature and the Vaiṣṇava finds in Śrī Kṛṣna of Vṛndāvana, the pattern and paragon of this sweetly condensed fragrantly enchanting love. The other incarnations of God are but partial exponents of the Divine essence. The perfect relation of love is exemplified in the love of the cowherd milkmaids of Vraja for Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

 

Fondness prevalent between a man and a woman is manifested in conjugal relationship also. The love possessed by Śrī Lakṣmī for Her husband Lord Nārāyaṇa in Mahāvaikuṇtḥa of the divine sky, nay, the tenderness contained in the bosoms of the multifarious Goddesses of Fortune located in Goloka is also not regarded as the highest expression of it. Godhead is manifested there in His infinite power and glory, and love is only one of the attributes. It is tempered with admiration and feelings of awe, reverence and majestic opulence i.e. ‘aiśvarya-jñāna’.

 

However, to the cowherd damsels of Vraja, God is the supreme male – eternal object of devotional love. The Gopī is enamoured of Kṛṣṇa not because of His power and majesty for His own sake. Conjugal love ranks low, because it does not run any risk. On the contrary, the approval of society and the appreciation of the custodians of law and order furnish an incentive to such love. Even when the love is most intense in marital relation i.e. ‘svakīya-sambandha’ and the wife finds supreme satisfaction in promoting the jubilance of her consort, it is not entirely disinterested and spontaneous.

 

The love of the Gopīs, who are a class of women married apparently to other males (those males being non-different expansions of Śrī Kṛṣṇa only), for Śrī Nandanandana stands in a distinct category altogether. It is entirely disinterested and self-effacing. There is not the slightest incentive from self-love. The highest satisfaction of the Gopī in the ‘samarthā’ type of love is derived from the realisation that her lover, Kṛṣṇa, is content.

 

In the ‘samañjasā’ type, self-gratification is also an element in it, though it is not the predominant motive, pivot or even the invariable concomitant of it. This classification of types of love has a sound rational basis.

 

Self-love or ‘kāma’ is the supreme obsession of ordinary creatures. There is nothing elevating or ennobling in it. It is properly known as lust and to address it as love will be its unnecessary and unjust promotion. Even the lust of brutes and their mating is inspired by this incentive of self-gratification solely based on the carnal plane.

 

Based on Ujjvala-nīlamaṇī of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, the crest jewel of all transcendental connoisseurs, when the said self-love or lust requires Śrī Kṛṣna as the fulfiller, it relinquishes its ordinarily known designation of kāma and is transformed into ‘sādhāraṇī-rati’ as seen displayed in the hunchback maid of Kaṁsa viz., Kubjādevī of Mathurā.

 

On the other hand, love rises in the scale of purity in proportion as the egoistic impulse is subordinated and the happiness of the other party gains upper hand. The samañjasā type of love embodies the highest fulfilment from the bard’s standpoint. But, it was reserved for Caitanyaite Vaiṣṇava theologians to evolve the unprecedented conception of samarthā by linking it with the implicit evidences portrayed in the crest jewel of all sacred texts i.e. Śrīmad-bhāgavatam.

 

Love reaches its final culmination in voluntary sacrifice of the gratification of the petty ego; the Gopī makes herself the means and not the end. Her supreme satisfaction consists in the dedication of her whole personality – physical, mental and spiritual – to the enjoyment of Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Rādhā is the supreme manifestation of this love. None can compete with Her in this respect. Kṛṣṇa finds the paramount culmination of love in His dalliance with Her.

 

We have alluded to parakīyā love and the supreme status accorded to it in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition of romantic aesthetics. The ‘parakīyā-nāyikā’ is the wedded wife of some other person and according to Vedic convention and legal sanction, she is solely bound to her husband. Fidelity to the husband is the sine qua non of married love. The highest and perfected  expression of such love is typified by the love of Devī Sītā for Śrī Rāmacandra. The saints and poets have bestowed their highest encomiums upon it and our admiration knows no bounds. But, the Vaiṣṇava of the Gauḍīya seminary, though he bows his head in admiration, does not think it to be the highest fulfilment of love. The pangs of suffering and the corroding pain of cruel injustice add poignancy to the love of Sītā. But, though the selflessness of Her love transgresses the possibility of any question mark, the Gauḍiya Vaiṣṇava philosopher does not let us forget or ignore that there is a silver lining within the outer cloud of misery. The approbation of society, the admiration of saints and philosophers, the homage of the multitude are assured, and though they do not give any aid or do not make any contribution to the fortitude and self-resignation of Sītā, they give a halo to Her love.

 

Conversely, in the case of the Gopīs, there is nothing but scandal, execration of society, calumny of the mass and condemnation of the leaders of society and public opinion. There is no redeeming feature in the abyss of vilification into which they have casted themselves headlong. Their passion of love consumes all consideration of social and legal sanctions. The Gopī willingly immolates herself on the altar of love and in this, she completely forgets her interests, both of this world and the next. It will be a travesty of justice, if we liken her to the ordinarily fallen woman. The woman who leaves the protection of society and family is impelled by passion of self-gratification. But, the Gopī has no notion for her own pleasure. It is the delight of her Beloved that acts as the sole impetus.

 

(serialized essay – 1)

 

  • The Staff of Bhakti Rasa Vedānta Foundation & Bhaktirasavedāntapīṭhādhīśvara Ācārya Śrī Gurupāda

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